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21

Yes, there are lots of other factors. Factors affecting sea levels are no different from other natural processes: there is a large number of coupled, non-linear effects, operating on every time scale, and at every length scale, and across many orders of magnitude. The Wikipedia page Current sea level rise lists many of the known processes. And I wrote a ...


17

Here's how astronomers of the late 19th century thought the Moon would appear: Recreations in Astronomy by H. D. Warren D. D., published in 1879, via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selenography. Here's what Apollo 15 astronauts saw: Apollo 15 Lunar Module Falcon at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. Hadley Delta in the background rises approximately 4,000 ...


14

tl;dr: no. Long answer: First of all, like mentioned by others in the comments, you would need some physical mechanism to take a whole lot of water, evaporate it, and drop it at once at a place where the Grand Canyon is now. This is not something that's going to happen because of physics. If there was some extraordinary event which could have caused this, ...


12

Sedimentation rate presently varies many orders of magnitude depending on the place you observe. The rate of sedimentation is also different. Some places have continual sedimentation, others have episodic sedimentation events. That is why charts that show changes in sedimentation rate are usually done for individual sedimentary basins, to determine the ...


10

If no new mountains were built, yes. Ultimately the processes of erosion would render the continents flat, and the seas would be left shallow and filled with sediments. The reason that this doesn't occur is that tectonic processes cause 'orogenesis', the formation of new mountains. The subduction of oceanic crust at plate margins is also responsible for ...


10

Your concept of weathering is erroneous. It is not uncovering or stripping off material. Weathering is a very slow process of breaking down rocks, soil & minerals, in-situ, via contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water & biological organisms. This can also involve heat & pressure. Erosion, as you state, involves the moving of material. This can ...


9

It appears the sands at Talakad are the result of a ecological disaster that occurred in the 17th Century. At the time, a dam was constructed north of Talakad on Kaveri River which caused the river to be diverted. This exposed a sand deposit in the river which was subsequently moved to Talakad by monsoonal winds. The following quote is from this source AB ...


8

Definitely, there are lots. As you say, sea-level is rising in most (but not all) coastal areas. Indeed, at the end of the last ice age ca. 12,000 years ago, sea-levels rose about 120 m. Many islands and land bridges — such as Beringia across the Bering Strait, and Doggerland across the North Sea — drowned. I can't find any lists of drowned islands, but ...


8

In addition to all of the above there are meanders inn the Grand Canyon which are hydraulic outcomes of 'minimum energy flow configurations'. This constrains the discharge rates that are possible - to within the normal range of hydrologic discharges. Furthermore there are several places in the Grand Canyon where there is clear evidence of the river having ...


8

As Spießbürger also mentions in his answer sedimentation rates are local, and highly depend on sediment supply and accommodation room in the sedimentary basin. Global sedimentation rates are then just an average of all sedimentary basins, and are closely related to global erosion rates, although not necessarily the same depending on the time scales you look ...


7

This link is a scientific talk by geoscientist Jerry Mitrovica (Harvard University) called 'Sea Level Fingerprints of Ice Sheet Collapse'. It's about an hour long, fairly technical, and focused on ice sheet contributions to sea level change (it was for an audience of other scientists), and has some good background related to this question. I highly recommend ...


7

I'm assuming here that you're asking whether you can apply the term ‘erosion’ to the damage your stone suffered, rather than the damage your floor suffered. In this case, the applicability of the term hinges not so much on who's doing it as on what it's happening to. In geology, the term ‘erosion’ is usually applied to land surfaces rather than individual, ...


6

This is probably more of an English language question than a science question. The answer to it depends on the extent of a person's vocabulary & knowledge of a particular field of engineering. Over a period of time, in the media I have read & heard mine "tunnels" incorrectly being called shafts. Mine shafts are vertical or near vertical. What most ...


6

I'd like to add to David's excellent answer. Your premise is that there are "mountains before erosion" is not exactly accurate. Mountains, in the sense that think of them (local elevated regions above their surroundings, e.g. Mont Blanc) form because of erosion. In that case, mountains without erosion would simply not be mountains. Note that there can be ...


6

After I asked the question, the Rosetta mission sent back some glorious images of rocks as jagged as those on any science fiction book cover: I suppose the difference is that these are on the surface of a comet, which, unlike the Moon, is geologically active. These are hardly what you'd call mountains - the whole nucleus is only 4km long, so the features ...


6

No, there are nowhere near this many craters on earth. I think you're asking if there are lots of craters on earth too, but they're hard to see because of vegetation and the oceans. The answer is 'no'. The main reason is that — thanks to plate tectonics — most of the crust is substantially younger (hundreds of millions of years) than the surface of, say, ...


6

Without water there would be no multi-billion year history of plate tectonics, no glacial action, and no fluvial erosion, so the Earth would look unrecognizably primitive. But we have an atmosphere, so all the impact crater rims would be subject to aeolian erosion whilst low points, including crater bowls, would have aeolian sedimentary infill. Volcanic ...


5

Erosion (especially), viscous relaxation, uplift, crust recycling (in the long term), volcanic activity, filling of the crater with deposits, and distortion by crust deformation (eg earthquakes) are all more important than vegetation, except for very small craters. Other planets and bodies have few or none of these processes.


5

Well the oceanic crust get recycled (through subduction), the oldest being only ~200 million year old, and the average, much younger. And on continents it is not just vegetation but dynamic processes such as collision, rifting, erosion etc. that quickly (in geologic time scales) modify the landscape. Even Chicxulub is not obvious if you just look at the ...


5

Big question. There is not enough data resolution at the moment, neither spatially nor temporally. There are geological periods thought to have undergone higher erosion rates based on the abundance of some sediment facies, such as during the Trias. There are also many sedimentary basins where where the evolution of sedimentation rates is well known. But ...


5

Fresh shield volcanoes that are dome-shaped may be of interest to you. Shield volcanoes on Venus - The Pancake Domes Shield volcanoes on Earth - The Galapagos Islands


5

It is unlikely just from erosion. There are a couple reasons for this but because of the time scale over which this process would occur, other phenomenons might change the geologic picture completely. The reason the canyon formed in the first place is because of tectonics that uplifted the rocks. From this page: Uplift of the Colorado Plateau was a key ...


4

Soil is not a single uniform material. When wind erosion takes hold, as in the infamous 'dust bowl' of the 1930s, it is the uppermost A horizon, and to a lesser extent the B horizon that is mainly lost. The lost soil takes with it most of the organic carbon, and it is this component that is most difficult to replace. Rates of soil loss are primarily ...


4

Interesting question. As long as plate tectonics persists, then, as @Arkenstein mentions, mountain building and ocean basin formation will create enough topographical variety to ensure that land exists. Moreover, as long as there is a distinction between continental and oceanic lithosphere, we will have continents. But this will not last forever. At some ...


3

Impossible to give an accurate answer because nobody has ever studied rates of erosion of this kind of rock in such a setting. Typical long-term rates of cliff cut-back in an exposed position are 5 to 20 cm per year, but that is for average rock, which is much softer than Rockall. This is a complex rock, mainly comprising Aegirine Granite, and containing ...


3

Differential erosion, the "wax-drips" have been hardened by chemical deposition, usually by calcium salts, washed down from the soil at the top of the cliff. There are different mineral deposits that can cause this effect including but not limited to calcite, silica, iron, manganese, fine organic matter, alumina, and fine clay, to name a few, anything that ...


3

Typically rivers can be divided into three areas when it comes to erosion: far upstream there is the area where most erosion happens in the middle mostly transport of material happens downstream rivers mostly deposit material Which also can be determined by the shape and size of rocks in a streambed, which correlate directly to erosional force at that ...


3

This may not answer your question, but it indicates that erosion is extreme at high altitudes. More than 60 percent of the sediment delivered to the world's oceans in the prehuman world originated from erosion in mountainous areas with elevations greater than 3 km above sea level. Muddy Waters - More sediment is entering rivers, but less makes its way ...


2

It's a question of rates of erosion. All mountains start to erode from the moment that mountain building begins. The erosion stops, or slows down to minuscule amounts when the mountains are protected by a vast thickness of ice, as in Greenland and the Antarctic. As soon as the ice starts to melt, normal rates of erosion will resume. Rates of erosion on ...


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