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The record the article is referring about seems to be the same as registered at Guiness World Records: On 13 September 2012 the World Meteorological Organisation disqualified the record for the highest recorded temperature, exactly 90 years after it had been established at El Azizia, Libya, with a measurement of 58°C. The official highest recorded ...


10

I'm the scientist in the article; someone just saw this question and emailed me about it! (I'm on as a guest here since I don't have an account, so you'll hopefully trust it's me. Even if you don't believe it's me, I hope the answer will still be useful.) It's entirely a safety issue. The best way to get around on the surface of the glaciers in this area is ...


5

Short answer: the refraction of light is ultimately dependent on both temperature and exact composition of the medium (e.g., liquid water or ice) through which it passes. Note: strictly speaking, "steam" typically refers to water vapor at temperatures above the boiling point, but in casual usage (and for the purposes of this answer) it is commonly used to ...


5

The Hadean era covers the time from the formation of the Earth until 4bn years ago. It was characterized by a surface of molten rock, due to repeated meteor strikes, volcanism and radioactive decay. "Liquid water oceans existed despite the surface temperature of 230 °C (446 °F) because of the atmospheric pressure of the heavy carbon dioxide atmosphere....


4

Are there "transparent" clouds? Yes. One type is called subvisible cirrus clouds. They're essentially clouds that are very, very thin. According to Reverdy et al. (2012): Spaceborne lidar observations have recently revealed a previously undetected significant population of Subvisible Cirrus (SVC). We show them to be colder than −74 °, with an optical ...


4

The wikipedia article List of weather records explicitly states This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[1] Reference 1 in that article, a web archive link to a page on World Meteorological Organization Global Weather & Climate Extremes, adds that (...


2

Try the long game: Start reading up on the research that is being done. For the interesting ones, start corresponding with the authors asking questions about the work. They have to be good questions, showing that you know what you are talking about. Look at who funds each researcher. Check the papers for those 'thank-yous' that give credit to various ...


2

Land that has been heavily disturbed by humans in most developed countries, such as urban and rural regions will have been surveyed for topographical & sub-division purposes. Such data allows for a digital terrain model (DTM) to be created for such regions. When subsidence occurs, the subsided area can be resurveyed & compared to the original DTM to ...


1

Several methods are employed to measure ground subsidence: Spirit leveling, GPS (GNSS), Remote Sensing, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging to name a few. In the case of modeling subsidence caused by water and oil extraction, the most common measuring methods seem to be Spirit leveling, GPS and Remote Sensing (Interferometric ...


1

As described in the question there are two similar coils, one radiates the AC magnetic field ("transmitter") and the other picks up the weak radiated AC magnetic field produced by subsurface electrical currents induced by the primary field. Sensitivity vs. Depth There are two modes of operation. The following two figures are from Section 4.1 of GEONICS ...


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