32

Quoting from John Russell's response to this article, "This is arrant nonsense!" Russell concludes with How did this paper get through the peer-review and editorial review processes? What technical standards were applied to determine the apparent merit of its contents so as to justify its inclusion in a reputable journal? Just because something is ...


16

The most important source of natural gas is natural gas. This is why it is called natural. It is not "made" from oil or coal. Natural gas forms by decomposition of organic material. Whether the organic material decomposes to coal, oil, or gas depends on the composition of the original material, time, pressure, and temperature. In theory, oil (=long chains ...


15

The sequence of events you describe has never happened, for several reasons. As Sabre Tooth mentions in the comments, vehicle emissions have a negligible effect on stratospheric ozone. (Note that while vehicle emissions can lead to ozone production at ground level, the ozone layer is several kilometres above the Earth's surface and isn't really affected by ...


15

What neither the authors nor the response by John Russell takes into account is that all underground oil and gas is stored inside tiny pores of rocks. An oil reservoir is not a big underground cave, it is a very fine-grained sponge made of stone filled with oil. In essentially all cases, there is more stone than oil (by volume). This means that since oil is ...


14

Summary Most of the remaining stocks of hydrocarbons (coal, natural gas, oil) will have to remain unburnt. In almost all cases, that will mean leaving them in the ground. We already have proven technology to prevent new emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and in most cases, the technical and economic barriers are solved: the remaining ...


13

Helium is produced by the radioactive decay of primordial uranium and thorium. It should not be strongly associated with non-primordial 'fossil' hydrocarbons. The first statement is correct. The second is not. There are several reasons that helium should be strongly associated with non-primordial hydrocarbons. Both are fluids found predominately in the ...


12

Let's look at this. A very large number of points for one question. First, the solar system. We do not see any hydrocarbons in the inner solar system (Mercury to Mars). This is because in this region of the solar system, dissociation by solar UV rapidly destroys primordial hydrocarbons. This effect is much weaker further out. Oil well 'replenishment' will ...


10

No, we do not need to stop extracting petroleum, we need to stop burning petroleum, as well as other fossil fuels, because combustion converts solid C to gaseous C, and hence goes up to the atmosphere, increasing the amount of greenhouse gases that warm the planet. No, we do not need to convert existing CO2 into diamonds. Plants are pretty good taking up ...


9

Are there probably decent oil fields located in the middle of the ocean? tl;dr: no. Hydrocarbon deposits form by thermal maturation (i.e. slow and mild heating) of buried organic matter (i.e. dead things) in sedimentary rocks. This is exactly why you find hydrocarbons... very near the country's shore, on the continental shelf ...because that's exactly ...


9

Oil and gas both form when organic matter is buried under anoxic conditions, such that it isn't oxidised and subsequently mineralised to the elemental components of the hydrocarbons. What hydrocarbons are formed depends on both burial depth and temperature. Above approximately 1km below the surface no significant formation of oil takes place, and ...


9

Diamonds are expensive. Really expensive. Even "cheap" synthetic diamonds are orders of magnitude more expensive than conventional fossil fuel. By using them as fuel, you will increase demand, thus increasing their price even more. And synthetic diamonds have to be made somehow, and you need energy for that. Diamonds burn, but they don't burn well. For ...


8

The category "other gases" may not solely include other naturally occurring gases extracted from the Earth. As you state natural gas is predominantly methane, extracted from the Earth. Another type of gas commonly used is petroleum gas, which is prepared by refining petroleum of wet natural gas. Petroleum gas is propane or butane. Coal gas, which was ...


8

Coal, oil and gas can be found anywhere on Earth: on land and on sea. The Japanese once mined coal from beneath the sea floor, using Hashima Island as the base of operations. The island is only 6.3 ha in size. The British also mined coal from under the sea, in the north east of England. As for oil, the following picture from USGS shows the current oil-...


8

Geological processes are just too slow. Although, given how quickly we are pumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, humanity may well (in a generation or two) be growing biological material as fast as possible and throwing it into deep holes in the ground, which will give another fossil-fuel resource in a few million years. But we'll be doing that just ...


8

1.2 x 10^13 kg equals 12,000,000,000,000 l water. One liter equals 0.001 m³, while one km³ equals one billion (1 x 10^9) m³. So we're supposedly adding 12 km³ water to the atmosphere per year. According to wikipedia the total oceanic surface is about 361,900,000 km². If we spread the added amount of water over all the oceans, we end up with a sea level rise ...


7

David Hammen's answer explains why He is extracted from natural gas. But, it is not found only there. Helium exists just about everywhere on earth. You find it in volcanoes, in subseafloor hydrothermal vents and even just slowly leaking away from the ground in U and Th rich zones. As with all extraction of natural resources, it comes down to economics. How ...


7

The process you're describing in the question is the one at the origin of coal. Although coal deposits are known from the Devonian to the Quaternary, they have been 3 major periods of depositions (see Thomas 2013): the Carboniferous-Early Permian, the Jurassic-Cretaceous and during the Cenozoic. So, indeed the Carboniferous is one of the main period of coal ...


6

This isn't really a complete answer, more of a footnote to @EnergyNumbers answer. (Aside: I'm not sure what the definition of a 'geological process' is, but it's not quite fair to say they are 'too slow'. Leaving aside a philosophical point about scale invariance, it's easy to think of fast geological processes. So maybe we can't reject the hypothesis on ...


6

Fred's answer looks correct, but in this case, the source is right there under the chart. US Energy Information Administration (type "other gases" in the search box) Explained here in the footnotes Other Gas includes blast furnace gas and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 0.3% if anyone is interested. Prior to 2011 the ...


5

Yes, it does add to global warming. No, it's not currently measurable. Human primary non-renewable energy consumption is about 15TW - and pretty much all of that goes into low-grade heat in the ocean surface and the atmosphere. Expressed in the same terms as the forcing units of global warming, the forcing effect of that heat is about 1.7% of the effect ...


5

A significant part of the natural gas used around the world today comes from oil fields. On top of the oil is a layer of natural gas, and in the crude oil is dissolved natural gas. This will be released when the pressure drops during the extraction of the crude oil so the natural gas will be separated from the oil during the extraction process. Earlier ...


4

Reference [6] under that Wikipedia article on spontaneous combustion gives you some answers: "The Fire Below: Spontaneous Combustion In Coal". DOE/EH-0320, Issue No. 93-4. US Department of Energy. May 1993 How Coal Self-Ignites The coal's temperature begins to climb above ambient. At about 150-300 degrees F, it begins to give off minute, but ...


4

Sulphur/sulphides in coal may be one of the causes of self combustion. A slight diversion - in some metal sulphide mines, such as copper, at high level of sulphides in the ore, the sulphides can oxidize thus creating sulphide fires. If a lot of dry dust is produced during stope blasts, during the mining process, sometimes the sulphide dust can cause a ...


3

Natural gas can occur above and below oil formations however when they occur in the same formation natural gas will sit on top because it’s density per kg/m3 is 800+ and natural gases density is 400+ weight of natural gas weight of crude oil


3

The definition of a fossil is "evidence of past life preserved by geologic processes". By this definition a coal bed is itself a fossil since it is the preserved organic matter from an ancient swamp. Oil and Natural Gas that are formed by the change of dead algae under the heat and pressure of being buried in the earth. These would also be fossils. ...


3

The helium in natural gas wells is created from uranium and thorium (as you correctly state) contained in the underlying granite basement rock or radioactive black shales that allows the natural gas to be trapped and contained. It's not that the helium is created from the fossil hydrocarbons, but that it comes from the rocks that trap those hydrocarbons (...


3

Coal and other organics like wood and straw decompose when exposed to oxygen, that decomposition is an exothermic oxidation reaction so it heats the material around it which accelerates the decomposition. This can be reasonably harmless if there's enough airflow to cool the pile and carry away the small volumes of flammable volatile gases formed by what is ...


2

To add on to Fred above - There is something called 'Underground coal gasification' where you basically react coal with steam and oxygen underground to produce a stream of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (plus minor methane). This can then be burnt as fuel or used in Fischer-Tropp manufacture of hydrocarbons.


2

LPG ( liquid petroleum gas) is primarily produced with "natural" gas. It is separated from the methane by condensation ( in "gas plants" ) because it is more valuable . It does not require pipelines for distribution ; ignoring the fairly recent development of LNG ( methane) facilities. "Earth" gas seems a strange term; There are wells that produce ...


2

Coal, which is essentially pure carbon, slowly oxidizes, it is the same reaction as it burning just much slower. This is the major source of heat for self-heating of coal. Many things that will burn will also slowly oxidize under normal temperatures, it is just not a sustained chain reaction that a fire is. Since this is weak slow process there is a large ...


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