32

Quoting from John Russell's response to this article, "This is arrant nonsense!" Russell concludes with How did this paper get through the peer-review and editorial review processes? What technical standards were applied to determine the apparent merit of its contents so as to justify its inclusion in a reputable journal? Just because something is ...


15

What neither the authors nor the response by John Russell takes into account is that all underground oil and gas is stored inside tiny pores of rocks. An oil reservoir is not a big underground cave, it is a very fine-grained sponge made of stone filled with oil. In essentially all cases, there is more stone than oil (by volume). This means that since oil is ...


15

The sequence of events you describe has never happened, for several reasons. As Sabre Tooth mentions in the comments, vehicle emissions have a negligible effect on stratospheric ozone. (Note that while vehicle emissions can lead to ozone production at ground level, the ozone layer is several kilometres above the Earth's surface and isn't really affected by ...


13

Summary Most of the remaining stocks of hydrocarbons (coal, natural gas, oil) will have to remain unburnt. In almost all cases, that will mean leaving them in the ground. We already have proven technology to prevent new emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and in most cases, the technical and economic barriers are solved: the remaining ...


11

Let's look at this. A very large number of points for one question. First, the solar system. We do not see any hydrocarbons in the inner solar system (Mercury to Mars). This is because in this region of the solar system, dissociation by solar UV rapidly destroys primordial hydrocarbons. This effect is much weaker further out. Oil well 'replenishment' will ...


10

No, we do not need to stop extracting petroleum, we need to stop burning petroleum, as well as other fossil fuels, because combustion converts solid C to gaseous C, and hence goes up to the atmosphere, increasing the amount of greenhouse gases that warm the planet. No, we do not need to convert existing CO2 into diamonds. Plants are pretty good taking up ...


9

Diamonds are expensive. Really expensive. Even "cheap" synthetic diamonds are orders of magnitude more expensive than conventional fossil fuel. By using them as fuel, you will increase demand, thus increasing their price even more. And synthetic diamonds have to be made somehow, and you need energy for that. Diamonds burn, but they don't burn well. For ...


9

Are there probably decent oil fields located in the middle of the ocean? tl;dr: no. Hydrocarbon deposits form by thermal maturation (i.e. slow and mild heating) of buried organic matter (i.e. dead things) in sedimentary rocks. This is exactly why you find hydrocarbons... very near the country's shore, on the continental shelf ...because that's exactly ...


8

Coal, oil and gas can be found anywhere on Earth: on land and on sea. The Japanese once mined coal from beneath the sea floor, using Hashima Island as the base of operations. The island is only 6.3 ha in size. The British also mined coal from under the sea, in the north east of England. As for oil, the following picture from USGS shows the current oil-...


8

Geological processes are just too slow. Although, given how quickly we are pumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, humanity may well (in a generation or two) be growing biological material as fast as possible and throwing it into deep holes in the ground, which will give another fossil-fuel resource in a few million years. But we'll be doing that just ...


7

The process you're describing in the question is the one at the origin of coal. Although coal deposits are known from the Devonian to the Quaternary, they have been 3 major periods of depositions (see Thomas 2013): the Carboniferous-Early Permian, the Jurassic-Cretaceous and during the Cenozoic. So, indeed the Carboniferous is one of the main period of coal ...


7

The category "other gases" may not solely include other naturally occurring gases extracted from the Earth. As you state natural gas is predominantly methane, extracted from the Earth. Another type of gas commonly used is petroleum gas, which is prepared by refining petroleum of wet natural gas. Petroleum gas is propane or butane. Coal gas, which was ...


6

Fred's answer looks correct, but in this case, the source is right there under the chart. US Energy Information Administration (type "other gases" in the search box) Explained here in the footnotes Other Gas includes blast furnace gas and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 0.3% if anyone is interested. Prior to 2011 the ...


6

This isn't really a complete answer, more of a footnote to @EnergyNumbers answer. (Aside: I'm not sure what the definition of a 'geological process' is, but it's not quite fair to say they are 'too slow'. Leaving aside a philosophical point about scale invariance, it's easy to think of fast geological processes. So maybe we can't reject the hypothesis on ...


5

Yes, it does add to global warming. No, it's not currently measurable. Human primary non-renewable energy consumption is about 15TW - and pretty much all of that goes into low-grade heat in the ocean surface and the atmosphere. Expressed in the same terms as the forcing units of global warming, the forcing effect of that heat is about 1.7% of the effect ...


4

Reference [6] under that Wikipedia article on spontaneous combustion gives you some answers: "The Fire Below: Spontaneous Combustion In Coal". DOE/EH-0320, Issue No. 93-4. US Department of Energy. May 1993 How Coal Self-Ignites The coal's temperature begins to climb above ambient. At about 150-300 degrees F, it begins to give off minute, but ...


4

Sulphur/sulphides in coal may be one of the causes of self combustion. A slight diversion - in some metal sulphide mines, such as copper, at high level of sulphides in the ore, the sulphides can oxidize thus creating sulphide fires. If a lot of dry dust is produced during stope blasts, during the mining process, sometimes the sulphide dust can cause a ...


3

Natural gas can occur above and below oil formations however when they occur in the same formation natural gas will sit on top because it’s density per kg/m3 is 800+ and natural gases density is 400+ weight of natural gas weight of crude oil


3

The definition of a fossil is "evidence of past life preserved by geologic processes". By this definition a coal bed is itself a fossil since it is the preserved organic matter from an ancient swamp. Oil and Natural Gas that are formed by the change of dead algae under the heat and pressure of being buried in the earth. These would also be fossils. ...


3

Coal and other organics like wood and straw decompose when exposed to oxygen, that decomposition is an exothermic oxidation reaction so it heats the material around it which accelerates the decomposition. This can be reasonably harmless if there's enough airflow to cool the pile and carry away the small volumes of flammable volatile gases formed by what is ...


3

I honestly wish I could come up with a better answer for this question but the original article is so horrible I'm not sure where to even begin responding to it. For starters, it's published in a medical journal and if the abstract is anything to go by, the paper is constantly comparing the earth to the body. Quote: Just like the function of the thermal ...


2

To add on to Fred above - There is something called 'Underground coal gasification' where you basically react coal with steam and oxygen underground to produce a stream of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (plus minor methane). This can then be burnt as fuel or used in Fischer-Tropp manufacture of hydrocarbons.


2

LPG ( liquid petroleum gas) is primarily produced with "natural" gas. It is separated from the methane by condensation ( in "gas plants" ) because it is more valuable . It does not require pipelines for distribution ; ignoring the fairly recent development of LNG ( methane) facilities. "Earth" gas seems a strange term; There are wells that produce ...


2

Scarcity is the biggest limit, diamonds burn much like coal but unlike coal they are extremely rare. artificial diamonds would still cost vastly more to make than digging up coal.


2

I'm expanding upon a couple of the answers because none of them used the term "buoyancy" explicitly. Also, don't use the term "mineral oil", just call it oil or petroleum. Mineral oil is a distillation by-product of petroleum and is not found in subsurface reservoirs. Let's consider a simple example of a thick reservoir quality sandstone with constant ...


2

Coal, which is essentially pure carbon, slowly oxidizes, it is the same reaction as it burning just much slower. This is the major source of heat for self-heating of coal. Many things that will burn will also slowly oxidize under normal temperatures, it is just not a sustained chain reaction that a fire is. Since this is weak slow process there is a large ...


1

it is all about the density.gass have a lower density than oil and oil have a lower density than water. oil will float on water and gass will float on oil. some gasses are lighter than air like hydrogen gass so this will float on air because hydrogen have lower density than air. your question is about schoolwork so i asume this Q&A will be closed soon....


1

If you watch older British ( and some American )films you will see large gas accumulators ; typically 50 M in diameter and in height with external steel framework which permitted them to rise and fall depending on storage volume. This was called "water gas" which sounded better than coal gas. There are some "fire flood " fields to produce regular oil and gas ...


1

Based on the stats for the US only, I would say we have the capacity for using fossil fuels over the next 100 years. Whether or not we worry about it is another discussion entirely. The US has coal resources for the next 250 years and I suspect may be producing and using natural gas for the next 100 years. For the US (from the US Energy Information ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible