9

I'm ignorant of all the organic and inorganic chemical reactions that can destroy or create water, and the factors controlling them. But I can give a shot to the part of the question related to volcanoes and the water stored on Earth's interior: The most abundant gas in volcanic eruptions is water, corresponding to more than the 80% of emitted gases in ...


5

So will a tangerine sun loom large over red-hot waves softly breaking on abyssal beaches? Probably not. Interesting question, and one might think that yes - you could melt the evaporite deposits that will be left after all the water is gone. The problem is that molten salts are extremely reactive materials. They will corrode any rock they get into contact ...


5

Not sure this is appropriate for Earth Science SE (Chemistry SE would be a better fit), but the answer is "maybe". quoting from the same Wikipedia article: Three oxides of xenon are known: xenon trioxide ($\small\mathsf{XeO_3)}$ and xenon tetroxide $\small\mathsf{(XeO_4)}$, both of which are dangerously explosive and powerful oxidizing agents, and ...


3

Reactions that can produce or destroy water: ${\displaystyle {\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{CO}}_{3}\to {\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}+{\hbox{C}}{\hbox{O}}_{2}}$ (and there is plenty of ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{CO}}_{3}$ (carbonic acid) in the sea water). ${\displaystyle {\hbox{HCl}}+{\hbox{NaOH}}\to {\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}+{\hbox{NaCl}}}$ Combustion: ${\displaystyle {\...


3

Except from the obvious that carbon dioxide is more soluble in cold water and perhaps that some carbon dioxide is trapped in glacial ices, which are the known mechanisms? Those obvious mechanisms, particularly the first, are the primary mechanisms. Atmosphere carbon dioxide content gradually drops to very low levels during a glaciation precisely because ...


3

I've already commented on this before here. This will not work regardless of whether this is iron or lead or anything else. The fact that it was published in Nature does not mean it is true, always remember that. A 108 kg ball of iron would have about 30 metres in diameter, which is not a lot, compared to Earth scales. Here is why it will not work: We ...


2

What you can see in the bottom picture is sandstone/mudstone/claystone. If you look at the bottom picture top right you can see a thin rock that has split off, this is how a rock splits after it has been heated and then suddenly gets cooled down as it does on Mars when the Sun goes down. On Earth the change in temperature is too slow for this to happen in ...


2

My speculation is that if you try to use ma% or mas%, you will be asked to change it to wt%, because what you are proposing is not yet standard usage. If I came across ma%, my initial though would be "what does that mean". My second thought would be, "does it mean milli annums percent?", (thousandsths of a year percent) - which would be meaningless to me. ...


2

The possible source of methane is biological, and that is what everyone is hoping for, but the more likely source is geological, produced by chemical reactions between rock and water deep underground and issuing though fissures to the surface. We are dealing with very small amounts here which are difficult to detect and measure with precision. Once out in ...


1

If you enlarge the picture and follow a line at 1 o'clock from the weirdly shaped piece in question, a few feet away from it at the back of an imaginary 'man's head' rock, you will see a similar convoluted piece. Now follow a line at 10 o'clock from our original specimen, and also a few feet away is a longer,straighter piece in the process of eroding from ...


1

First of all, the rocks do not disappear they dissolve, so they are still there only dissolved into the liquid. You are using an acid (vinegar), this has a low pH. The rocks you are using (limestone) they have a high pH (alkaline). The alkaline rock you add to the acid will dissolve but only until the acid is neutralized. The reaction stops when the pH ...


1

This is an interesting question that is maybe a little misguided. Instead of answering your question directly I'd like to draw your attention to some things that might get you to rethink your reasoning. It turns out that what you're thinking of as the lower mantle (an assemblage of solid phases: mainly bridgmanite + ferropericlase + some other stuff) might ...


1

I very much doubt whether this is going to happen within the next billion years, but something like it is bound to happen one day. Our sister planet Venus has already reached a surface temperature of 400C,which has boiled off the oceans but is not hot enough to melt salt. There should be some salt deposits there (even Ceres has some),but perhaps they are ...


1

Potassium 40 has a half life of 1,300,000,000 years, which means that within that time half of the 11 percent which you refer to will have decayed to form Argon 40. Potassium 40 has two modes of decay, which is unusual for a radioactive isotope. Only 11 percent of it becomes argon 40, the remaining 89 percent decays by a different mode and becomes Calcium ...


1

Photosynthesis and respiration only exchange water for organic compounds and vice versa, those reactions can not alter the amount of water in the earth, only convert a small part into organic compounds.


1

Oceans did form on other rocky planets - at least Venus and Mars, and moreover, many moons of Jupiter and Saturn as well. The problem is that of the two other terrestrial "uberplanets" who had oceans - i.e. the aforementioned Venus and Mars - they lost them, but in rather different ways. On Venus, what happened appears to have been that, synthesizing the ...


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