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I didn't really understand where did this "one-sixth of the escape velocity" figure come up from. The "one-sixth of the escape velocity" a ballpark number. As a general rule, three sigma events (events that are three standard deviations from the mean) happen all the time, while twelve sigma events are so very, very rare that they can ...


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The pH of ocean water is currently about 8.1, which lies between the second and third dissociation constants (7.20 and 12.37, respectively). So most of the phosphate inthe ocean in its twice-dissociared form, as $\text {HPO}_4^{2-}$. For comparison, our own blood is around pH 7.4, so phosphate in our blood would be a mixture of $\text {HPO}_4^{2-}$ and $\...


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