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This is an interesting question that is maybe a little misguided. Instead of answering your question directly I'd like to draw your attention to some things that might get you to rethink your reasoning. It turns out that what you're thinking of as the lower mantle (an assemblage of solid phases: mainly bridgmanite + ferropericlase + some other stuff) might ...


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Your stone is almost certainly a clear opal. I see no sign of opalescence in your photographs, which would make it of very low value except for the fossilised tooth. Fossils are occasionally found in opal. When they are found in amber (a completely different mineral) they raise the value of the specimen, so I expect it's the same with opal. Opals are formed ...


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This is a very complex question, for reasons I shall explain. Firstly. we need to establish what gases there are in the atmosphere before we worry about how much is dissolved in the ocean. Argon deserves a mention at 1 percent, and there are a few other gases in trace amounts, some of them more abundant than methane, some less, but as, like neon, they are ...


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Oceans did form on other rocky planets - at least Venus and Mars, and moreover, many moons of Jupiter and Saturn as well. The problem is that of the two other terrestrial "uberplanets" who had oceans - i.e. the aforementioned Venus and Mars - they lost them, but in rather different ways. On Venus, what happened appears to have been that, synthesizing the ...


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