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Present distribution of land masses have occurred due to the movement of tectonic plates. The real reason of the movement of plates is not precisely known, but it is perhaps related with the events that are occurring inside the Earth's interior, there is molten lava where several circles of waves are in continuous movement. There are several cells of such ...


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You can study the many maps, it seems there is a giant ridge foming but the ice grinds it faster than it rises. Icebergs are grinding the arctic deeper than sea level, like 300/400 meters deep, also considering the glacial maxima when the sea level is lower and there is more ice, whatever mountains are rising in the arctic are weathered far below the sea ...


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Major problems with sunlight\energy\temperatures for the "southern Hemisphere". The Flat Earth Society offers this suggested map of a flat Earth and a rough idea of how seasons would work: But because of the larger radius of the SH Summer circle, the sun would have to move faster to complete a circle in 24 hours during December. That would mean ...


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The Arctic has already been explored extensively by people traversing over the ice, by air and by naval submarines. On August 3, 1958, the American submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-571) reached the North Pole without surfacing. It then proceeded to travel under the entire Polar ice cap. On March 17, 1959, the USS Skate (SSN-578) surfaced on the North Pole and ...


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The sea floor has been mapped using sonar from ships as shown here, and radar. But the fact was first discovered long before these technologies existed by sailors who got stuck in the ice. The entire ice sheet is floating and spinning at a relatively high rate of speed. When they got stuck, they could see, from the stars, that they were moving. I cannot find ...


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How about corals? The Great barrier Reef is already quite noticable from space.


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Some I don't see mentioned here. Gravity, esp. the gravity the moon exerts on the ocean, creating tides. Radiation, esp. solar radiation. Earth axial tilt, which causes seasons and affects biomes.


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Temperature changes Lots of possible reasons for that (variation in solar output, variation in the composition of the atmosphere, changes in orbit, rotation or angle of the planet...). If it goes up, oceans expand (due to melting of ice caps and glaciers and expansion of water), and continents shrink. Inner seas and lakes may on the other hand shrink due to ...


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The Netherlands reclaimed land from the sea and built huge dikes to keep back the water. So human activity consisting of moving dirt also reshapes the world's surface. Here's a randomly googled youtube video explaining what that consists of: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6DRRHXt-PA


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Slightly smaller than perhaps what your looking for but does fall under "noticeable on a world map", Nuclear explosions. Specifically there have been plans for "civilian usage" in making ports, canals, tunnels though mountains etc. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Plowshare#Proposals The plans covered pretty much anything where you ...


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The break of a gateway stopping the sea from enter a lower area, like when a newly breached gateway now called the Strait of Gibraltar filled the Mediterranean Sea with water.


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In the history of our planet there were a handful of volcanic events which shaped parts of continents (specifically, covered them in lava) and are linked to mass extinction events. Nature had an article in 2017.


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Another answer that hasn't yet been stated is life. Land plants totally changed weathering patterns. And of course humans have radically altered the world at a global scale, from direct impact (mining, river redirection), to weather patterns from deforestation, to acidification of ocean and sea level rise from climate change. Edit: Another thing is volcanic ...


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Asteroid strikes. Anything from a smallish crater to re-liquefying the surface of the planet.


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Erosion is a powerful but slow and time consuming process that can make dramatic changes. The best example of this is the Grand Canyon. Carved by a river over at least 17 million years, 5000 to 10,000 feet deep, 277 miles long and 18 miles wide. Erosion, whether it be due to wind, rain, water flow in rivers, glaciers is a major cause of geology, in the form ...


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Glaciers come to mind. Their movements over hundreds or thousands of years can abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques [enclosed valleys from which the glacier scooped up earth], moraines [accumulations of this earth deposited elsewhere], or fjords [narrow inlets surrounded by steep cliffs]. Gone fishing If you ever ...


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The key sentence here is (not sure where the dataset is from) Every cartographer has to decide what level of detail to use. Mathematicians discovered the Coastline paradox for themselves in the 1980's, but it has always been an fundamental part of cartography. Different sources of data will come out of different methods of data collection, digitization, ...


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