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This is a tale of two three dimensional coordinate systems. You may need to take a bit of a side track if your students are not already familiar with the concepts of three dimensional coordinate systems, three dimensional vectors, the three dimensional dot and cross products, and transformations between coordinate systems. The image below portrays two such ...


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Select the objectives you want to use on your microscope altogether with your camera. If the camera is not a permanent installation, ensure that the mount reliably establishes again and again the same position and alignment in respect to the optical axis of the microscope. See if your group has a stage micrometer, a slide with fine regular markings: (...


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it was simply an older stone smoothed by water that had fallen into sediment. This is exactly what happened. There's a name for that: a conglomerate.


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First step - draw a strike line where line A intersects the 400 m line. Second step - you know that the sandstone layer is of equal thickness and dip, so you can draw a parallel line at the place with line B intersects the 400 m line. This will give you the thickness, as expressed on a horizontal surface. You know what the dip angle is, so getting the real ...


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Not knowing the setting and judging from the image alone in this trampled environment, I think we're looking at a form of chemical weathering called "spheroidal weathering". The gist is this (from the linked wiki page): Penetrating water alters the bed-rock along cracks or joints, causing volume changes between altered and unaltered parts. These ...


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Your questions regarding stripping ratio only apply to open pit mines. They produce much more waste rock than underground mines. Typically they mine more waste rock than ore. Underground mines are more surgical and depending on circumstances some of the waste rock they produce is used as backfill in mined out stopes. the stripping ratio (which is usually ...


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This is the classic description of a porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit. What happens is that there is a magmatic intrusion (the porphyry), which then solidifies. When it solidifies, it expels acidic hydrothermal fluids which carry metals in them - most often copper (represented by chalcopyrite) but also sometimes molybdenum (represented by molybdenite). ...


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I'm studying Earth Science right now, and I found conflicting reporting re: the formation of the Grand Canyon; whether it was formed singularly by the Colorado River over millions of years, or if it was formed by other processes with the river only filling into it relatively recently. Yes, it was formed by other processes with the river only excavating into ...


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The term you are searching for is differentiation. In Early Earth the Crust was mafic. Remelting cycles created an enrichment in silica and alkali elements, forming basalts and granites. As it happens on Continental Crust it is commonly referred as Differentiation of the Continental Crust. Hacker, B.R. et al (2011): "Differentiation of the continental ...


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You need to take a look at lithology changes and stratification. On a fold the stratification is parallel to the fold, while on a transgressive-regressive cycle it crosses the v form. Source: Own work with Inkscape. At the field the best is to look up to lithology changes and define how is stratification spatially related with the main shape. You can easily ...


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