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If you extend your map out a little bit further, you will see that the Brooks Range is just a continuation of the Rocky Mountains into Alaska. Source: freeworldmaps.net, ©Daniel Feher (explicitly permitted use here) The Brooks Range was formed at the same time as the front ranges of the Rockies in Canada and the Lower 48, during the Laramide Orogeny ...


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Near to the Earth's surface there are small variations in the Earth's magnetic field, but these don't play a role in providing the magnetosphere which protects the Earth from charged particles emanating chiefly from the solar wind.


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Your rock is granite, an igneous rock of volcanic origin, not sedimentary. It has a similar composition to basalt, but has cooled more slowly and therefore has larger crystals. It is mostly made of quartz, which is usually white, feldspar. mica and hornblende. Hornblende is black, though there are other minerals sometimes found in granite which are also ...


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A 5km impactor would make a very, very global mess. Here's a discussion of tsunami formation from asteroid impacts. It presents numbers for impactor size up to 2km, and posits a rule-of-thumb that indicates a 5km impactor would generate a coherent wave (one that doesn't dissipate much over great distances) as long as it impacts in water less than 20-30km ...


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You are entirely correct. Todd and Engi write: The mineral assemblages of rocks at the surface lie on a locus of P–T-conditions… It must be stressed…does not imply a P–T-distribution or geotherm realized at any one time during the orogenic evolution of this area. Even assuming the P–T-values reflect maximum metamorphic conditions, these were ...


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Oceans did form on other rocky planets - at least Venus and Mars, and moreover, many moons of Jupiter and Saturn as well. The problem is that of the two other terrestrial "uberplanets" who had oceans - i.e. the aforementioned Venus and Mars - they lost them, but in rather different ways. On Venus, what happened appears to have been that, synthesizing the ...


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