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It will and continue to do so over great time since a lava lake has extreme temperature and will not cool that quickly if water where to be poured over. The water will take seconds to evaporate whereas steam, which is evaporated water, will likely condense into clouds.


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In southern Canada where there is plenty of sedimentary rock, Isostatic uplift is normal as the many ice ages in the quaternary epoch have created a situation where they have pushed down sediments which want to lift back up if given a chance and with the St. Lawrence River being a fault for instance, they gain that opportunity with releasing off some of that ...


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The answers so far are broadly correct. Iceland has formed from a coincidence of a constructive plate margin and a mantle plume, or "hot spot". But to really understand why Iceland is there we need to look at a normal constructive plate boundary. A normal mid-ocean ridge is formed where two plates spread apart so that the mantle, which is at a certain ...


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1.5° to 3° can be linked to anthropogenic global warming. https://www.worldweatherattribution.org/wp-content/uploads/July2019heatwave.pdf This one, and others before, would not have been possible to that degree without anthopogenic heating. The desert is not to blame, they actually have, as has been said, a pretty high albedo and clear skies. During the day ...


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The question of where are the Oiler poles are right now is not of particular interest. I find it curious that the one for the North American plate lies roughly close to the famous "Muertes Archipelago" ;-)


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We know the density of the core from seismology. We also know the density of pure iron at given pressure (P) and temperature (T). From these two, people have long noticed that there is a discrepancy: the actual core is lighter than a theoretical core made of pure iron. This is known as the Core Density Deficit (CDD). To explain this CDD, we need to add light ...


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New(ish) work on the matter: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-33823-y tl,dr: "Modern style" plate tectonics may be (at least) as old as 2.2Gy, probably having started 2.5Gy. Expanding as requested: The paper is not paywalled. It is about a metamorphic (by temperature and pressure altered) rock that fits in a regime that is typically connected to ...


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Iceland isn't only situated on a divergent boundary (which in itself can rise up to shallow depths because of higher static and dynamic lift btw.) but also on a (postulated) pretty deep rooted mantle plume that may produce enough magma to rise to subaerial heights. Edit: The magma that erupts at an ocean ridge is "welded" to the sides ("sheeted dykes"). ...


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Simulating the conditions in earth's core is difficult. Maybe one day it can be done. Until then, we must live with indirect methods. The sulphide fractionation towards the core is a valid hypothesis. https://www.geochemicalperspectivesletters.org/article1506 The "lead paradoxa" express another inequality in earth's fractionation, if compared to for ...


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The reason islands don't form along divergent plate boundaries is that these boundaries are at the bottom of the sea, and usually quite deep. Although mid ocean ridges are volcanic, the magma doesn't get a chance to pile up and reach the surface because the plates are not static. They are slowly spreading apart, and the magma is needed to form fresh oceanic ...


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