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12

Short version; the beach moves because the waves change. Long version; Beaches, and in fact entire bays, conform in shape and alignment to the prevailing wave patterns in the area. The exact magnitude and alignment of wave trains varies due to chaotically complex interactions between surface winds, subsurface currents, local seabed features, tide, larger ...


8

The similarities pretty much end at the fact that both water and lava flow downhill seeking the lowest possible level. As even the most fluid lavas flow somewhat slower than water because of their higher density and viscosity, their lower speed and in particular their viscosity makes them far less erosive of the terrain they flow over/through. In fact lava ...


4

In English, the word fluvial comes from the Latin word for river. Fluvial processes are processes associated with rivers or streams and the deposits and forms created by them. River terraces and fluvial terraces are the same thing.


3

In terms of rheology, there is a key difference between water and lava: water is a Newtonian fluid, lava isn't. In early volcanology days, there has been attempts to model lava as a Newtonian fluid (Nichols, 1939). This approach may be a good approximation in some cases (very fluid lavas, like pāhoehoe flows), but does not work for more viscous lavas ('a'ā ...


3

It should be noted that NetCDF data just describes the format that the data is in. One dataset that I know of (IBTrACS) contains data that is not gridded data, and also contains a landmask. But this is besides your question. To rephrase your question: How can I determine the orientation of the coastline in a gridded dataset? Well, one way is using ...


2

its the same way atolls form, sea level changes and tectonic plates move while the corals keep growing up as the land sinks. Any spot high enough for coral to survive can slowly grow in this way. they can end up hundreds of meters above the sea floor by the slow gradual process of growing coral. I find a simple animation makes it easier to follow. Cays are ...


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