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54 votes
Accepted

Does gravity increase the closer to the core you get?

The below figure, taken from Wikipedia shows a model of the free fall acceleration, i.e., 'gravity'. The left-most point corresponds to the center of the Earth; then further right at $6.3\cdot1000$ km ...
Erik's user avatar
  • 1,999
42 votes
Accepted

Where on Earth is the magnetic field intensity stronger?

If we consider only the magnetic field generated by natural sources, and not the ones generated by human activities. The general trend is that higher intensities of the magnetic field happen close to ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
38 votes

What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

It is the pressure gradient that is proportional to the local gravitational force. When that force is integrated over a distance, the pressure gradient is integrated to accumulate a total pressure. ...
Oscar Lanzi's user avatar
  • 4,041
31 votes

What are these undersea lines all around Hawaii?

Short answer: The lines radiating from the island are artifacts from a mapping process that superimposes high-resolution sonar data from standard ship tracks on top of r low- or average sonar data ...
jeffronicus's user avatar
  • 3,486
28 votes
Accepted

Where is the calmest place on Earth?

The main resistance that winds have to their movements comes from the topography and surface obstacles. Therefore, as a general rule the closer to the surface the less wind you will find. But I guess ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
22 votes
Accepted

Taking into account the decay products of transuranic elements, are the world's uranium reserves growing or shrinking?

Let's start with the easy question: given our current known reserves of transuranic elements and again taking into account their decay products, where will the greatest uranium reserves be in, say, ...
Gimelist's user avatar
  • 23.2k
17 votes

Why is the temperature between the earth core and surface not distributed linearly?

The temperature does indeed increase with depth, something that is a problem in deep mines or deep drilling, but a benefit for geotermal heating. The heat originates mostly from radioactive decay, but ...
user2821's user avatar
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17 votes
Accepted

How did the Ural mountains form?

The Ural mountains are one of the oldest mountain ranges on Earth. They started forming about 300 Ma ago by the subduction of the oceanic crust once attached to the Kazakhstania plate under the ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
15 votes
Accepted

Is the global temperature of the earth a physical quantity at all?

There is no unique way to define a global average temperature of the Earth, but that does not mean that calculation of such a quantity is "pointless". If someone tells me that the average ...
David Bailey's user avatar
  • 1,017
14 votes

Are there water molecules in the oceans which will almost never fall down as rain?

Never is a very, very long time. Almost never is a vague term. The age of deep ocean water has been studied with both models and observations, and both indicate a lower limit age in the order of ...
gerrit's user avatar
  • 11.7k
14 votes

What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

The previous answers do a fine job already. But I'll try to add a simple thought experiment. Imagine three objects floating in space, clumping together by gravity: ...
stippi's user avatar
  • 241
13 votes
Accepted

How is known that the Earth core is solid?

This is a good observation. The reason we can measure S-wave (transverse) propagation in the inner core is because P-waves can set up S-waves and vice versa. When an S-wave hits the mantle-outer core ...
bon's user avatar
  • 2,211
13 votes
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How much water is the atmosphere losing to space?

It is not actual water what is lost to space, because in the high atmosphere water usually dissociate into other molecules or ions. The oxygen ion outflow is frequently assumed to be a proxy for the ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
13 votes

Where on Earth is the magnetic field intensity stronger?

Since it is not specified in the question (and to complement the other answer), the strongest magnetic fields on Earth are not naturally generated, but artificially. The current world record holder ...
Graipher's user avatar
  • 331
13 votes

What is technically wrong with Wijngaarden & Happer's paper claiming to show that CO2's contribution to surface warming is saturated?

To answer the original question about CO2 saturation, I'll describe spectral absorption. Each gas in the atmosphere absorbs light at specific wavelengths, and some wavelengths are absorbed more than ...
Zim Sherman's user avatar
12 votes

How to quickly or easily prove the world is spherical?

Skype. Skype someone at least 10 time zones away. Ask them to point the camera at the sky. Proven. This actually works really well for a psychological reason as well. Its easy to deny abstract ...
George Mauer's user avatar
11 votes
Accepted

How fast does the Earth's inner-core spin?

Roughly once per day, but a tiny bit faster. As the website for Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory says: The inner core rotates in the same direction as the Earth and slightly ...
Spencer's user avatar
  • 3,638
11 votes

Are old geophysics textbooks useful?

Mathematics and computer science are exact sciences. If something is discovered and known, it is not wrong. With time, there may be better or new ways of doing something, but the old stuff is still ...
Gimelist's user avatar
  • 23.2k
10 votes
Accepted

Changes in Earth's orbital and rotation speeds

The Earth moves faster around the Sun when it is near its perihelion (the closest point of its orbit to the Sun). And it moves slower when it is further away (aphelion), just as Kepler realized quite ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
10 votes

Would oceans regenerate if removed?

I'm ignorant of all the organic and inorganic chemical reactions that can destroy or create water, and the factors controlling them. But I can give a shot to the part of the question related to ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
10 votes
Accepted

Unwarranted claim of higher degree of accuracy in zircon geochronology

I can't be entirely sure but I'll make an informed guess: That value doesn't come for a single measurement. Therefore, if the error in the age of a single sample is $\pm125$ kyr, you just need to ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
10 votes

What are these undersea lines all around Hawaii?

Hawai was created by a coat of plume. This means that hot material rises and penetrates the oceanic currents! These are fracture marks from this process. Secondly, the plate is torn apart by ...
Weiss's user avatar
  • 2,075
9 votes

What is the origin of oil?

As far as we can tell, almost all crude oil (petroleum) is biogenic, and specifically comes from marine organisms. That's the only theory that is supported by the geological record, by the ...
410 gone's user avatar
  • 4,080
9 votes
Accepted

Is the iron on Earth's crust a leftover of the Iron catastrophe, or it was brought back by volcanoes?

Not all the iron sank to the core. Have a look at my answer to a previous question: https://earthscience.stackexchange.com/a/7076/725 Your question is similar, but coming the other way. You're ...
Gimelist's user avatar
  • 23.2k
9 votes
Accepted

Does the global temperature vary daily (hotter and colder days)?

The site http://www.karstenhaustein.com/climate.php comes closer to answering your main question with a daily anomaly graph: Indeed it's still not the actual average temperature... and I too was ...
JeopardyTempest's user avatar
9 votes

What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

Pressure at the center of the earth is non-zero. You're correct that there's no gravitational force at the center of the earth, but that doesn't mean pressure is zero - the pressure comes from the ...
Nuclear Hoagie's user avatar
8 votes

Does a mountain top have higher gravity than a nearby sea-level surface?

I gave this one some thought and ran some numbers. The real answer to your question is that you would be lighter because the material that makes up continental plates is lighter than the basalt rock ...
userLTK's user avatar
  • 5,897
8 votes

How did Great-Britain separate from France?

"Is it possible that the oceans eroded land between them so they became separated"? Yes, sort of, but it isn't a simple story. There are several factors: (1) Rivers eroded much of the English channel, ...
Gordon Stanger's user avatar
8 votes

Earthquakes at plate boundaries

The cause is partly geometry and partly process. Subduction zones generally take oceanic crust and upper mantle down into the deeper mantle, but the angle of the subduction zone varies greatly. For ...
Gordon Stanger's user avatar

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