The area is experiencing post-glacial isostatic rebound.
Much of Canada was covered in an extensive ice sheet in the last glacial period (the 'Ice Age'), from about 110 ka until 12 ka. The ice in the Hudson Bay area was among the last to melt:
A thick ice sheet depresses the crust (the lithosphere), making a small dent in the uppermost mantle (the ...
Because of post glacial rebound. The asthenosphere was pressed down under Laurentide ice sheet during last ice age and is now finding a new balance, without the weight of the ice.
Note that around the ice sheet, the land is actually sinking today, like when ones partner gets up from a waterbed mattress.
It depends where, the continental landmasses at higher latitudes would be covered by massive ice sheets. Therefore the life in the sections of the US and Europe that are close to the Ice sheets would have conditions similar to what is life in Greenland today. The map would look like this:
(Image taken from planetaryvisions.com)
And the summers would be ...
This is a kind of chicken or egg question, since there was never really a point at which there was no river flowing, or no hills to flow around.
My question is whether the hills preexisted the course of the river or did the river in some way cause the hills to "appear".
Most of the area which you describe along the Mississippi is formed of sand, gravel ...
Eskers are glaciofluvial deposits from sediment carrying subglacial tunnels. As the water emerges from a tunnel at the bed of an ice sheet or glacier it will slow down. Since the sediment movement depends on water velocity the sediment will be deposited. The results is a highly localised deposition. When glaciers retreat the point of emergence for the water ...
A Heinrich event requires massive ice sheets to grow and then collapse in the Northern hemisphere. The large outflow of icebergs that would result form such collapse would deliver fresh water and debris to the North Atlantic, which is what constitutes a Heinrich event. These events are detected by existence of deposits of ice rafted debris ...
Calculated Earth is one of the better tools for this, you can either zoom in and get various flood stages or set a specific flood stage and see what would flood, it is in metric though so you may need some conversion software to deal with the units for you, depending how familiar you are with metric.
The Quaternary is definitely a good guess. But it is difficult to answer your question because the "age of a fjord" is a rather ambiguous concept.
Also, I'll asume you are interested in the bedrock topography associated to the fjords, and not only the sea inlets (as in that case they would have formed very recently, just when the glaciers receded enough to ...
There is no direct way to determine past ice thickness. The only solid information that exists are past areal extent. But, even this information is not necessarily clear since later advances may have overridden the past terminal positions and dating may not be exact. A main issue is the synchronicity of all such positions.
With a past extent it is possible ...
Your question is framed as if any model of glaciation were only allowed to consider one of those influences. I think practically any palaeoclimatologist would accept that astronomical forcing, solar output, and volcanic eruptions all have effects on glaciation. It's true, however, that on long timescales (tens of kiloyears and up), Milankovitch forcing ...
Lyle et al. (2007), prior to the paper you mention, also came up with this idea that the ACC initiated with its modern setting (i. e. with strong currents and mixing throughout the water column) during the Late Oligocene (ca. 25 Ma), so roughly 10 Myr after the Eocene-Oligocene when the antarctic glaciation is thought to have occurred. Their evidence is ...
In order to confirm the snowball earth hypothesis, we'd need at least:
A paleogeographic model which extends to greater than 650ma and has been shown be be conclusively accurate throughout that entire period. (i.e. one we can trust)
Sedimentation structures/patterns (or other paleoclimate proxy data), consistent with a glaciation event, tied into the same ...
It's a little dated and brief, but it's a cool article and I believe it's overall sound in it's predictions and arguments presented.
On the overall point, the author isn't predicting an ice age in 2,000 years, so the answer to your title question is that he didn't really say that, though he writes the article somewhat poorly because that's not very clear, ...
The native worms are not good at competing for some reason.
There's a reason for that. There are no native earthworms in New York.
Still, before the most recent glaciers there were worms in these regions.
North America has been hammered by multiple glaciations for the last two million years. It wasn't just the areas covered by ice that lost their ...
As njuffa mentioned I don't believe you are looking at soil 100s of meters deep you are looking at unconsolidated sediments 100s of meters deep.
Depending on the geological process it is possible to deposit 100s of meters of sediments in a very short time. The conditions for deposition of large amounts of sediments are frequently found during the period ...
The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth [...]
The effect of clouds on global warming is highly uncertain. The 5th IPCC report states the following in this regard:
The sign of the net radiative feedback due to all cloud types is less certain but likely ...
The graph shows sea level fall (SLF) at the Churchill tide gauge station.
It is on the west side of Hudson Bay.
These jagged edge ups and downs, and severe drop in a short time, indicate this is not the result of rising land mass.
Greenland ice mass loss is the source of SLF in a wide area.
The latest estimations of global land ice mass suggest they have enough water to rise sea level in 66.5 m.
With this value you can go on and produce a global map (or one of you area of interest) at Calculated Earth as @Ash suggested. I agree is a good tool.
I've created an animated GIF using two maps produced at Calculated Earth with current sea level and +...
Biological time scale is not the same as geological time scale, and permanent ice retreated from Minessota around 18.000 years ago.
A search on Google took me to this website, where it says:
The time needed to form a soil depends on the latitude:
in environments characterized by a mild climate, it takes 200-400 years to form 1 cm of soil.
At the northern and southern ends of the Sea of Japan, there are only short stretches of very shallow sea separating Japan from the mainland. During the Ice Age which ended 12,000 years ago, sea levels were much lower than they are today. It is probable that during the last Ice Age there were land bridges connecting Japan to the mainland at these two points.
Pleistocene's climate variations are well correlated with Milhankovitch Cycles.
"Variations in eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earth's
orbit resulted in cyclical variation in the solar radiation reaching
the Earth, and that this orbital forcing strongly influenced climatic
patterns on Earth."
Source: Milhankovitch Cycles, ...
Our interglacial ends some 1500-years from now, the AGU recently recognized the Holocene as geo-engineered by people converting forest to agriculture.
We passed a warm-ocean tipping point for northern hemispheric winters, frozen oranges in Florida and rain in Alaska now will be common.
Our emissions rate is far beyond natural systems, the rate of change ...
I was personally looking for an answer to this question as well, and I found these sites very helpful.
The National Park Service Website:
You need to examine the assumption that it "stabilized". Rather (and simplistically, of course), the Milankovitch cycle en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milankovitch_cycles moved from a stable Ice Age regime to an interglacial one. Absent the current human interference, it would (IIRC, anyway) continue the interglacial for some tens of thousands of years, before ...
Gravitational dynamics of the Greenland Ice sheet have an impact, sea level fall, not often mentioned (e.g. on Europe: Proof of Concept - 5).
It causes sea level fall and sea level rise, depending on distance from the ice sheet (The Gravity of Sea Level Change).