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Yes, the age of the Earth is about 4.5 billion years (4,500 million years). Your linked articles describes well how it was formed and how we know about it. The uncertainty is less than 1% and depends partly on the radiometric dating methods and partly on the definitions. Sometimes the age is said to be 4.567 Ga, that might be a little too exact number to ...


11

The estimates of Newton and Kepler, and the similar estimates of dozens of their contemporaries, were produced by treating the Bible as a historically accurate document and deriving a chronology from it. I think that a detailed explanation of their techniques would be off-topic for Earth Science, but the Wikipedia page on the Ussher Chronology (which ...


9

Mathematics and computer science are exact sciences. If something is discovered and known, it is not wrong. With time, there may be better or new ways of doing something, but the old stuff is still correct. This is why you can get a textbook from the 60s and study it. Cauchy's laws are still correct and Euler's theorem is still correct. This is not the case ...


8

If it weren't for WW2 and the search for German submarines, the discovery of mid-ocean ridges might have waited until satellite based gravimetric mapping in the 1980s. It was the use of fine magnetometers (if I remember correctly) used to detect submarines that discovered the banding of magnetic stripes on the Atlantic ocean floor, followed by it's mirror ...


8

Who gave the names Troposphere and Stratosphere The stratosphere was firstly discovered by Léon-Philippe Teisserenc de Bort and Richard Aßmann (they did not cooperate) around 1900. Teisserenc de Bort denoted that layer as 'zone isotherme' in his publication on his discovery. However, he published in French. I remember to have read somewhere - not sure where ...


6

I think what was observed is a superior mirage. A superior mirage occurs when warm air overlies a very cold layer of air, aka an inversion. You don't often see a superior mirage in lower latitudes, but they seem to be somewhat common in and near the Arctic regions.With normal atmospheric conditions and taking into consideration refraction, about the furthest ...


6

Japanese legend claims that typhoons twice save Japan from attempted invasions by Kublai Khan, once in 1274 and seven years later 1281. These divine winds ("kamikaze") are mixed in Japanese mysticism and are perhaps apocryphal. The Chinese were meticulous record keepers and recorded disasters of all kinds. Liu et al. scoured written Chinese history for ...


6

The idea came from the theory that silicic acid was the chief form of silicon occurring in rocks. Early attempts to classify minerals, placed some mineral specimens in groups based acid-base reactions and the hypothetical acid that mineral was derived. Sulfates, phosphates, nitrates , and tungstates etc. This thinking was the result of 19th century ...


4

I think the U.S. Geological Survey has the gist of your answer -- prior to the mid-1900s, there wasn't enough seismological data to draw any conclusions: During the 20th century, improvements in seismic instrumentation and greater use of earthquake-recording instruments (seismographs) worldwide enabled scientists to learn that earthquakes tend to be ...


2

Trade winds from a general easterly direction occur almost all of the time in the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic. A hurricane approaching from any direction except from the south would change the wind direction because winds spiral counterclockwise into the hurricane. For example, a hurricane approaching from the east would cause the wind direction to back ...


2

Possibly, but they don't apply to today's world I'm reasonably sure, without having read the book but having looked at summaries online, that Dauvillier was arguing that the conditions on Earth when life first developed were such that life would not have developed if the Earth were 2 C warmer. First of all, you would need to specify from what baseline the ...


2

Every textbook written between about 1930 and say.....now, is pretty useless for your purposes. You'd be better served by watching many of those slick, university produced video lectures. They are filled with great motion diagrams that are un-reproducible in the pages of a two-dimensional book. After all, geosciences are largely about dynamic processes and ...


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