11

This is a huge and interesting topic. Certainly there are many ways the climate is affected by the lithosphere (and also what is going on in the asthenosphere). The lithosphere is naturally also affected by the climate. I find it difficult to distinguish the 'components' as matter and energy can flow from biosphere to lithosphere and from hydrosphere to ...


7

Absolutely. Lithospheric flexure due to volcanic edifice emplacement is well-documented. Not only do you get isostatic depression near the volcano, but further afield you actually can have uplift due to a "hinging" sort of effect. Lithospheric flexure drives the growth of underwater coral atolls through subsidence at a recently emplaced volcano (coral forms ...


7

Yes, they can. Hawaiian Trough is a good example. The impact on thin oceanic crust is naturally larger/faster than on stiff continental crust. Generally the lithosphere will always respond to load, even if it's sediments, ice or water. The process also works the other way, exhumation by erosion ease the load and cause uplift.


5

The timing of events in the lithosphere is not necesarily as large as tens to hundreds of millions of years (10s-100s My), and much shorter time scales also apply. Few examples, from short to long time scales: Several thousands of years (ky) is all that took to reflood the whole Mediterranean Sea, after tectonic opening of the Gibraltar stretch (I bet you ...


5

It's not easily answered, but I think, given the criteria you've laid out, the effects are generally pretty small. I am not interested on events that can in fact interact with the timescales of other climatic components. For example when land masses ocupied positions near the poles and the effect of the resulting increase in glaciation can be on the ...


4

The problem with my derivation is I am not sure if it correct and I do not have a way to check it. Try dimensional analysis to check your solution. Is your solution consistent with dimensional analysis? Estimate a solution to a real example, based upon you knowledge of geophysics and geology. Does your solution even come close to a reasonable estimate? If ...


4

As the continental crust is too buoyant (light) to be subducted, when two continents collide they smash against each other creating a mountain range, in this case the Himalayas. This process happen trough thrusting and folding of the plates, leading to something called lithospheric shortening. Which basically means that the plates (lithosphere is the stuff ...


4

Michael is correct. SIAL and SIMA are very vague and over-simplified summaries of the continental and oceanic crustal compositions. These terms may be OK for school introductions to geology, but you don't have to look far to find many exceptions. There are eroded and fragmented continental remnants, of nominally SIALic composition, in every ocean. Indeed, ...


3

The SiAl-SiMa classification is very general. The continental crust is much more varied than that, but it is ok for a first approximation. The oceanic crust is dominantly mafic (aka SiMa), composed of basalt and gabbro. The continental crust is much more complex than that. The upper layer of the continental crust is felsic (aka SiAl), mostly of a granite or ...


2

The process of forming continental crust is indeed thought to have started in the early Archean (i. e. between ca. 4 Ga and ca. 3.5 Ga). But it did continue later: Hawkesworth & Kemp showed in their 2006 review that while much of the continental crust had formed by 2 Ga, i. e. until the middle of the Paleoproterozoic, some of it still continued forming ...


1

Reading this question, I'm not sure if you realize what an isotherm is - in this case, imagine peeling rock from the surface of the earth until you reached a temperature of 1300 degrees Celsius. Now, in some areas, such as mid ocean ridges, you wouldn't have to peel back much rock at all, perhaps only a few dozen kilometers. Whereas in regions of old, ...


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