15

Atmospheric escape is a topic with a long research history. It is complex and is being addressed with both measurements and simulations. For example, the question of atmospheric escape is still actively researched at Mars, and the MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) spacecraft mission is for example dedicated to this topic. Mars is a planet ...


13

Since atmospheric retention is largely dependent on escape velocity and temperature, removal of the Earth's magnetic field should not have a greatly noticeable effect, as current research shows that Earth's magnetic field changes the location of atmosphere loss due to the solar wind rather than eliminating it. Earth's temperature is not likely to change ...


10

You can definitely see a large geomagnetic storm with a compass, if you have the timing to catch one and the patience to sit and stare for a few minutes. If you look at these minutely measurements from Lerwick observatory for one of the more recent large storms (the 2003 Halloween storm), you can see a roughly 4.5 degree swing in declination (labelled "D", ...


9

Technically yes, but practically, usually no. The magnetic field varies in three dimensions and the variations are not parallel to the Earth's surface. However, horizontal distances varies usually on a larger magnitude than elevation and for everyday use, the declination is only based on horizontal position. The common model for the Earth's magnetic ...


9

It is not actual water what is lost to space, because in the high atmosphere water usually dissociate into other molecules or ions. The oxygen ion outflow is frequently assumed to be a proxy for the loss of water from the planetary atmosphere. In terms of global outflow rates for the Earth the rate varies from $10^{25}$ to $10^{26} s^{-1}$, depending on ...


9

Solar wind particles directly entering the Earth's magnetosphere are not responsible for the majority of bright auroral displays. As you have found, it is magnetic reconnection that accelerates magnetospheric plasma that collides with the upper atmosphere to cause the visible aurora. Polar rain The Solar wind does enter the magnetosphere directly, and ...


8

Magnetohydrodynamic experiments intended to create laboratory analogues for the Earth's magnetic field generally use molten sodium rather than nickel. You can read about the details of one such project, DRESDYN, in this arXiv preprint. The central part of the envisioned precession dynamo experiment… will be a cylindrical vessel of approximately 2 m diameter ...


3

On a quick approach: Magnetism. The copper itself have a weak magnetism, so a copper core will not create a magnetosphere. Chek here or here. Gravity. The Iron density is 7.874 g/cm³ and the nickel density is 8.908 g/cm³. Copper density is 8.96 g/cm³. So with those density data, the core will be heavier. (The actual core is supposed to have a 9.9-12 g/cm³ ...


3

The region where the Earth's internal magnetic field is weakest is known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). In this region at Earth's surface, the field is approximately one third the strength of the region of maximum strength (near the North and South magnetic dip poles), so roughly 20,000nanoTesla versus 60,000nanoTesla. The weaker field seen at Earth's ...


3

When the solar wind is funneled into the Earth's magnetic poles, those particles excite the electrons of molecules in the atmosphere which then bumps those electrons up into another orbital. When the electrons fall back down into their native orbital, they produce a photon of a particular wavelength whose energy is equal to the difference between the energy ...


2

It seems your question was more like a thinking exercise rather than a question. I cannot answer your question with robust confidence in the current state of knowledge. The fact is, I have always shared your skepticism on the matter, particularly when being taught this subject matter in graduate classes by the experts who work in the field! What I can offer ...


2

Dr. Robert Strangeway kindly shared with me the poster he presented at AGU fall meeting 2017, the one I cited in the question based in the abstract only. I've included below some of the key parts of the poster with some text highlight added by me. He focus on Oxygen loss as a proxy of water loss. And the answer to my question that can be derived from this ...


2

Disturbance storm time index is a measure of the weakened horizontal component of Earth magnetic field during great magnetic disturbances. The depression is often flanked by peaks, that initiates and ends the storm. Dst is published by Kyoto University and more information about the methods and references are available on the web page. The Dst index ...


2

Could you be specific in your question as to what data you need on storms? Do you just need dates when storms occurred, or global geomagnetic index activity levels, or ground magnetic field measurements? Are you interested in the storm effects at Earth, or do you want space-borne measurements of solar activity? You can find lists of some basic info for the ...


1

Short answer: Tsyganenko was not the first to attempt an observation based mathematical model, and older purely theoretical models also exist. The first mathematical magnetic field model was created from measurements made on Earth's surface by Carl Friedrich Gauss in the 1830s, when he derived the mathematical techniques we still use. For the solar wind and ...


1

Near to the Earth's surface there are small variations in the Earth's magnetic field, but these don't play a role in providing the magnetosphere which protects the Earth from charged particles emanating chiefly from the solar wind.


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