15

Atmospheric escape is a topic with a long research history. It is complex and is being addressed with both measurements and simulations. For example, the question of atmospheric escape is still actively researched at Mars, and the MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) spacecraft mission is for example dedicated to this topic. Mars is a planet ...


12

Since atmospheric retention is largely dependent on escape velocity and temperature, removal of the Earth's magnetic field should not have a greatly noticeable effect, as current research shows that Earth's magnetic field changes the location of atmosphere loss due to the solar wind rather than eliminating it. Earth's temperature is not likely to change ...


9

Solar wind particles directly entering the Earth's magnetosphere are not responsible for the majority of bright auroral displays. As you have found, it is magnetic reconnection that accelerates magnetospheric plasma that collides with the upper atmosphere to cause the visible aurora. Polar rain The Solar wind does enter the magnetosphere directly, and ...


9

Technically yes, but practically, usually no. The magnetic field varies in three dimensions and the variations are not parallel to the Earth's surface. However, horizontal distances varies usually on a larger magnitude than elevation and for everyday use, the declination is only based on horizontal position. The common model for the Earth's magnetic ...


8

Magnetohydrodynamic experiments intended to create laboratory analogues for the Earth's magnetic field generally use molten sodium rather than nickel. You can read about the details of one such project, DRESDYN, in this arXiv preprint. The central part of the envisioned precession dynamo experiment… will be a cylindrical vessel of approximately 2 m ...


5

It is not actual water what is lost to space, because in the high atmosphere water usually dissociate into other molecules or ions. The oxygen ion outflow is frequently assumed to be a proxy for the loss of water from the planetary atmosphere. In terms of global outflow rates for the Earth the rate varies from $10^{25}$ to $10^{26} s^{-1}$, depending on ...


3

When the solar wind is funneled into the Earth's magnetic poles, those particles excite the electrons of molecules in the atmosphere which then bumps those electrons up into another orbital. When the electrons fall back down into their native orbital, they produce a photon of a particular wavelength whose energy is equal to the difference between the energy ...


2

Dr. Robert Strangeway kindly shared with me the poster he presented at AGU fall meeting 2017, the one I cited in the question based in the abstract only. I've included below some of the key parts of the poster with some text highlight added by me. He focus on Oxygen loss as a proxy of water loss. And the answer to my question that can be derived from this ...


2

Disturbance storm time index is a measure of the weakened horizontal component of Earth magnetic field during great magnetic disturbances. The depression is often flanked by peaks, that initiates and ends the storm. Dst is published by Kyoto University and more information about the methods and references are available on the web page. The Dst index ...


1

Near to the Earth's surface there are small variations in the Earth's magnetic field, but these don't play a role in providing the magnetosphere which protects the Earth from charged particles emanating chiefly from the solar wind.


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