32 votes

What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

It is the pressure gradient that is proportional to the local gravitational force. When that force is integrated over a distance, the pressure gradient is integrated to accumulate a total pressure. ...
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  • 2,561
12 votes

What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

The previous answers do a fine job already. But I'll try to add a simple thought experiment. Imagine three objects floating in space, clumping together by gravity: ...
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  • 221
9 votes

What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

Pressure at the center of the earth is non-zero. You're correct that there's no gravitational force at the center of the earth, but that doesn't mean pressure is zero - the pressure comes from the ...
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6 votes

How is relative humidity determined from a wet and dry bulb readings?

Edit: 1 May 2021 The following procedure uses the less accurate method from page 455 onward from the scanned sections of the book pictured below, from the original answer. The procedure is a ...
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6 votes
Accepted

How do I convert kg·kg⁻¹ to ppbV (parts per billion volume)?

So if you have a mass-mixing ratio, you effectively $\frac{ \text{kg pollutant}}{\text{kg dry air}}$. PPBV is parts per billion volume, or number of molecules of pollutant per billion molecules of dry ...
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5 votes

What types of high-level mathematics are useful in doing climate modelling/meteorology?

The question may generate primarily opinion based answers but while it is open one would like to present the following information. At the outset most of the people I know in the field work in NWP ...
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4 votes
Accepted

Is there a general equation to know how big of an area is affected by an earthquake?

No, there isn't, because the area affected depends on so many factors, some of them unknowable. Magnitude, cause, depth, geology (which may be very variable in different parts of the area) etc. ...
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3 votes

What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

Imagine the whole ball being separated into a handful of concentric shells, with the outermost shell being the crust with the surface, and the lower shells ever deeper, hotter, and ghastly regions of ...
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  • 131
3 votes

How many days has it been since the Cambrian explosion?

As a very rough approximation, one could start with equation (9) from Arbab (2009), https://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0304093 to get the effective number of days per year: $$T_{\text{eff.}} = T_0 \left(\...
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3 votes

How to determine (lost) surface (km²) of a country when both population and population density have changed?

$\text{Poulation density} = \frac{\text{Population}}{\text{Surface}}$ Re-arranging $\text{Surface} = \frac{\text{Population}}{\text{Poulation density}}$ In your case $\text{Surface} = \frac{100,...
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  • 17.1k
3 votes

Math needed for Hydrology, specifically surface water hydrology

Math is very important for hydrology. Especially for surface water problems, you require understanding of differential equations while open-water hydraulics like backwater calculations are complex. If ...
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  • 403
2 votes
Accepted

Growth of polar vortices vs projective geometry; what does this figure mean?

I suspect that this diagram has nothing to do with polar vortices in the meteorological sense. It’s hard to prove a negative, but digging into the source of this image led me in some very non-...
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  • 5,380
2 votes
Accepted

how much entropy is there in the shape of a rock?

This would actually be an interesting research project. The ability to do a 3-D scan and model of a rock's shape in a manner that is fast enough to get a statistically meaningful number of rocks ...
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2 votes

Is There a Correlation Between Earthquake Magnitude and the Deformation Observed in the Rock?

Generalizing such relationships is, as suggested above, hard to impossible - but for well studied and understood systems such correlations have been observed. For instance there is a clear, and almost ...
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  • 1,646
1 vote

Can we know if a numerical model will converge or not according to the boundary conditions?

The proposition of this question says nothing about the size of the domain, or how the domain has been discretized. And yes, the numerical model will converge if the necessary boundary conditions ...
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1 vote

Recommend books on Lat Long

https://www.amazon.com/Longitude-Genius-Greatest-Scientific-Problem/dp/080271529X I think you should read the book by Dava Sobell. It will give you perspective and lead you to original source ...
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  • 11
1 vote

formula to convert precipitation in mm/h to runoff in m³/s

There is no such simple relationship between rainfall and runoff (I wish there was!). How much of the rainfall ends up as runoff depends upon at least the following variables: temperature, humidity, ...
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1 vote
Accepted

formula to convert precipitation in mm/h to runoff in m³/s

When we say there was 1 mm (or 0.001 m) of rain, it is assumed that it is on a 1 square meter area, so it is equivalent to a volume of water of 0.001 $\small\mathsf{m^3}$ (or one liter). So first you ...
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1 vote

What is the lowest latitude for which if the ideal solar energy received each day for a year is graphed, the graph would contain one peak?

Any area south of the northern polar circle will have one peak per day,and the same goes for the southern polar circle any area north of this will have one peak per day,the polar circles is at 66,33 ...
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  • 1,830
1 vote

Is there a general equation to know how big of an area is affected by an earthquake?

Yes, using GMPES. E.g., you can look at the USGS shakemap which includes some measure of intensities such as PGA/PGV. Just choose an appropriate cut-off value and you have your area.
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  • 2,361
1 vote

What makes up a gradient

In addition to other information others have written in comments, gradients measure the rate of change of "a quantity". For example, take a hill. As you walk up the hill your elevation increases ...
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