# Tag Info

Accepted

### How do I convert kg·kg⁻¹ to ppbV (parts per billion volume)?

So if you have a mass-mixing ratio, you effectively $\frac{ \text{kg pollutant}}{\text{kg dry air}}$. PPBV is parts per billion volume, or number of molecules of pollutant per billion molecules of dry ...
• 8,799

### How is relative humidity determined from a wet and dry bulb readings?

Edit: 1 May 2021 The following procedure uses the less accurate method from page 455 onward from the scanned sections of the book pictured below, from the original answer. The procedure is a ...
• 24.7k
Accepted

### Is there a general equation to know how big of an area is affected by an earthquake?

No, there isn't, because the area affected depends on so many factors, some of them unknowable. Magnitude, cause, depth, geology (which may be very variable in different parts of the area) etc. ...
• 4,711
Accepted

### How to produce random numbers from seismic data?

This quote is from the article: Use of Local Entropy: after collecting data from the external sources, it is necessary to generate entropy locally. For that, we use our own TRNG (True Random Number ...

### How many days has it been since the Cambrian explosion?

As a very rough approximation, one could start with equation (9) from Arbab (2009), https://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0304093 to get the effective number of days per year: T_{\text{eff.}} = T_0 \left(\...

• 7,933
1 vote

### What is the lowest latitude for which if the ideal solar energy received each day for a year is graphed, the graph would contain one peak?

Any area south of the northern polar circle will have one peak per day,and the same goes for the southern polar circle any area north of this will have one peak per day,the polar circles is at 66,33 ...
• 1,878
1 vote

### Is there a general equation to know how big of an area is affected by an earthquake?

Yes, using GMPES. E.g., you can look at the USGS shakemap which includes some measure of intensities such as PGA/PGV. Just choose an appropriate cut-off value and you have your area.
• 2,381
1 vote

### What makes up a gradient

In addition to other information others have written in comments, gradients measure the rate of change of "a quantity". For example, take a hill. As you walk up the hill your elevation increases ...
• 24.7k

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