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Several methods are employed to measure ground subsidence: Spirit leveling, GPS (GNSS), Remote Sensing, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging to name a few. In the case of modeling subsidence caused by water and oil extraction, the most common measuring methods seem to be Spirit leveling, GPS and Remote Sensing (Interferometric ...


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In part, this is a geodesy question. I'm not an expert in that area, but there are experts on this site, so perhaps they'll come along. But I want to focus on one thing in the question: heights of objects are measured relative to the surface They don't have to be. Heights of objects are measured relative to some vertical datum. That might be the local ...


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Land that has been heavily disturbed by humans in most developed countries, such as urban and rural regions will have been surveyed for topographical & sub-division purposes. Such data allows for a digital terrain model (DTM) to be created for such regions. When subsidence occurs, the subsided area can be resurveyed & compared to the original DTM to ...


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