7

Lake breezes(similar to sea breezes) are fundamentally a feature of mesoscale meteorology and the peer reviewed reference Small Lake Daytime Breezes: Some Observational and Conceptual Evaluations details both the observational studies of lake breezes and the conceptual understanding behind the formation of the lake breeze. Since OP's question is How big ...


7

Your screenshot lists the raob as station 72357 on 2013-06-01 00Z. Station 72357 is OUN and the sounding for that day time is available at the SPC sounding archive. The SPC sounding analysis shows 3351 J kg$^{-1}$ CAPE and -76 J kg$^{-1}$ CIN for surface parcels. My speculation for your anomolous non-physical values of CAPE and CIN is that the algorithm ...


5

WRF model development is done in such a way that users can run the model independently before you start adding more complex options to ingest observations. There is even an "ideal" mode that new users can take advantage of to learn how the system works (not for simulating real Earth situations). In "real" mode, there are typically two types of simulations ...


3

It really depends on how you define storms. For tropical storms, there are some regions where they are not usually a threat. Likewise, for extratropical storms, there are latitudes where such things are not a concern (such as the tropics). The key to understanding the seasonality to such storms is to understand what controls the seasonality of what drives ...


3

These look to be Thermals to me . They form as a result of strong day time heating and vertical ascent in the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer. It's not clear what time of day the satellite image is but if it were around after 12 noon then that appears like cumulus clouds that have formed as a result of day time heating.


3

High pressures and low pressures at any height do not exist in isolation. Had to remind myself a lot of this (so anyone feel free to correct), but the first thing worth highlighting is that the Bermuda High is a warm core high pressure and so extends a great depth through the atmosphere. This image is a fairly typical cross section of the atmosphere at 35 ...


3

For soil mosture you can initialize the model with a dataset that provides that information. If you are doing historical retrospective you are likely going to initialize from a reanalysis dataset and if you are doing a forecasting case then you are likely initializing from GFS, RAP, HRRR or some other model. For the case of initialization from GFS, the ...


2

I fly too, so I have first hand experience with movement of air below 13000 feet (Cessna 172). I have my simple version: in an otherwise calm weather a thermal has three stages which looked from profile looks like a tree. Base level near earth is the roots. Rising column is trunk. And cooling off and dissipating at high altitude is the canopy. The part that ...


2

Start with the original equation. Let's first write the Hydrostatic equation: $$\frac{\partial p}{\partial z}=-\rho g$$ So let's prove that $$-g=c_p\theta\frac{\partial \pi}{\partial z}$$ If we use the product rule, we observe $$-g=c_p(\frac{\partial \theta \pi}{\partial z}-\pi\frac{\partial \theta}{\partial z})$$ Since $\pi=\frac{T}{\theta}$, we can ...


2

The storm and basics: Here is an animation I got from this NOAA Tweet of the lightning in Harvey hours before landfall: https://mashable.com/2017/08/31/harvey-weather-satellite-maps-lightning/, where I found the imagery, offers some basic thoughts, including the key concept that: As with most hurricanes, you'll notice that the most active area of lightning ...


2

So wind is caused by differences in atmospheric pressure which in turn is a result of temperature induced density differences. 1. Required temperature diference: A quick search brought up this paper: Miller et al. 2003 SEA BREEZE: STRUCTURE, FORECASTING, AND IMPACTS https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/2003RG000124 They calculate that ...


2

Extratropical cyclones are relatively well understood. They often follow the Norwegian Cyclone model, which was developed in the 1910's and 1920's. Because of their spatial extent, extratropical cyclones are often less intense than their tropical counterparts. Since they are so much larger and live longer over land, it is easy to get data about an ...


1

Yes, In he tropics where humidity is more ubiquitous moist air currents feed systems that allow for storms. In temperate climates these storms proliferate where it's warm and humid and die off in winter.


1

After looking back into this I found my error to lie in the long equation $\dfrac{\partial \pi}{\partial z}=\left(\frac{1}{p_0}\right)^{\frac{R}{c_p}}\dfrac{\partial}{\partial z}\exp\left(\frac{R}{c_p}\log(p)\right)=\left(\frac{1}{p_0}\right)^{\frac{R}{c_p}}* \frac{T}{\theta}*{\frac{R}{c_p}}*\frac{1}{p}*\dfrac{\partial p}{\partial z}$. I was wrong, ...


1

You're definitely on the right path with wanting to dig into raw data yourself. RAP has always been a pretty solid source of useful basic data. But in terms of making sense of the data, it indeed will take some practice. You can feel like you're not getting it at all, but suddenly pieces will start to click, much like riding a bike. Basically, you need to ...


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