Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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7 views

Found a tooth or crustacean claw? Can anyone please identify it?

Found it on the sand near Destin, Florida. Thought it was a shark tooth at first but I am second guessing. It is hollow and white. ]2
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How much would 5 gigatons of methane warm the atmosphere compared to 5 gigatons of CO2 if both were released in one go?

I don't know much about science, I'm just curious about how much warming a certain amount of CH4 would cause compared to a similar amount of CO2 (both 5 GtC). I'm sorry if the question sounded a bit ...
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Ways to make a “How hard is it raining?” detector for personal use?

Is there a consensus on the "heaviness" of rain? and Relationship between Probability of Precipitation and Predicted Amount of Rain remind me of a gedankenexperiment of mine. I like to ...
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Is there a consensus on the “heaviness” of rain?

As part of the home dashboard I am developing, I get information about incoming rain. It is given in mm/min. Is there a consensus on the precipitation rate that is called "light rain", or &...
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Does storm seasonality vary with latitude?

Anecdotally, where I live in northern Europe, the weather seems to be stormier in winter, and this seems to be backed up by hard data. For example, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/...
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Are there some places near the equator that are hottest in their winter and some that are hottest in their summer? Is there a map of this?

Under this answer there's a comment: I am not aware of any location having its hottest temperature in winter... and for mid-to-polar latitude folks specifically we first learn that our summer is the ...
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2answers
117 views

How is a weather forecast really done?

I am trying to understand the concrete process of how a meteorologist at a weather forecast office produces the different types of weather forecasts. I understand how numerical weather models work, ...
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608 views

Why do clouds dissipate when mixing with dry air?

So if dry air is just low humidity, meaning it has the capacity to hold more water vapour, it should make sense that the water droplets from the clouds will just evaporate and fill that dry air with ...
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The Pacific Northwest is about to endure the hottest temperatures in recorded history. What is the atmospheric setup causing it?

This is going to blow the July 2009 heat out of the water and into geostationary orbit. Dew points will also be high, between 17-20 Celsius. This goes beyond Arizona-during-the-monsoon-heat and into ...
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Why does the current warm spell in the Pacific Northwest include high, thin clouds?

I've noticed this during summers (lived here since birth). Sometimes there will be cloudless blue skies, other times when it gets warm there will be a layer of thin clouds, often with higher humidity ...
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Can a lightning strike ionise the material it strikes?

I know lightning strikes ionise the air, but I'm looking into geology, specifically amethyst, and found that it gets its colour partially from trivalent iron, iron(III), Fe 3+, whatever you want to ...
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Find optimum number and location of rain gauges

Is there any recommended method for finding the optimum number and location of rain gauges over a region based on the data from existing rain gauges. There is one Isohyetal method that does not give ...
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1answer
77 views

Why do clouds sometimes form in “plumes”?

When I started exploring GOES satellite images of cloud cover (such as this), I noticed clouds could form from "plumes." That is, large clouds could sometimes form by billowing up from one ...
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If methane is 120x more powerful that CO2 in the short term , how much warming would 50 Gt of methane cause? [closed]

I'm trying to learn how radiative forcing works, how the warming lag works? I found this old model: http://climatemodels.uchicago.edu/slugulator/slugulator.html Is it accurate? Can someone tell me ...
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Do wind predictions have confidence scores?

I’m a sailing captain in training and my community members asked about confidence in wind predictions. They were unhappy with the large variation between different wind predictions. The speed and ...
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What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
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47 views

Why are all the variables ( DRY_DEP_FLUX and WET_DEP_FLUX) zero in a wrf model output in all the time steps

I am working on WRF_GHG, I would like to calculate dry and wet deposition in the dry and wet seasons for CO2 and CH4 gases. However, when I check the wrf output, I see that all the variables (...
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How does the jet stream affect weather in Europe?

I researched how mid lattitude cyclones form and found it has to do with the jet stream, which is above the polar front. The pressure difference between the warm and cold air causes a pressure ...
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1answer
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Can Cirrocumulus and Cirrostratus appear at the same time?

I see cirrocumulus fading away in the front and bunch of cirrostratus in the back. However, I was taught that cirrocumulus appear when the upper atmosphere is unstable while cirrostratus appear when ...
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Why do 30% of all typhoons in the western north pacific (WNP) affect Taiwan?

A 300-Year Typhoon Record in Taiwan and the Relationship with Solar Activity (also here) shows that about 30% of all typhoons in the western north pacific (WNP) affect Taiwan. (Author's home page) I'm ...
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Is there any open source, stochastic rain forecast data available for the UK?

I'm sometimes frustrated by publicly available precipitation forecasts, such as those offered by the Met Office or Google. If I understand these forecasts correctly, they tell me: The expected volume ...
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Some website or institute with integrated statistics on forecasting the occurrence of rainbows

I am a lay person in meteorology, maybe this is not the right place for my question, but I would like to ask then. My question is simple: is there a website or institute that has integrated statistics ...
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Is it possible to detect Coriolis effect using a Wind Rose?

I once learned in high school that the area where I used to live experiences the Coriolis effects of the air movement above the city. I never paid attention to this before, but I recently heard about ...
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1answer
118 views

Cone of uncertainty in cyclones

Whenever I look up the track of a cyclone on the map, I always notice that the cone of uncertainty bulges as it moves towards land/ target. I have inserted two images to show you what I mean, you ...
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Why are clouds outlining the southeastern United States?

While watching the Starlink 25 launch earlier this month, I noticed that the Florida peninsula seemed to be nicely outlined by clouds. Pulling up satellite imagery from that time showed that my ...
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1answer
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How to find the top level of the planetary boundary layer in WRF?

I am working on WRF_Chem, I would like to calculate the concentration of CO2 just in the Planetary boundary layer(I mean, I want to calculate CO2 from surface to top of PBL).in WRF How can I calculate ...
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Why are mornings cooler than nights?

In the morning, Google shows the temperature from four or five hours ago (around 2:00 a.m.). But then I update the report, and I get the temperature slightly lower than before. Why is the temperature ...
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How are weather intensity scales created?

I am interested in the development of scales to measure extreme weather. For example, the Enhanced Fujita Scale for measuring the intensity of tornadoes, etc. How were they created? OK sure, I know ...
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124 views

How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
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How does a whirling hygrometer work, how does it differ from static dry/wet bulb thermometer, and how to obtain humidity from its readings?

Answers to my previous question How is relative humidity determined from a wet and dry bulb readings? provide equations for converting the two temperature measurements to a relative humidity. In ...
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How to find inertial advective component of ageostrophic wind in natural coordinates

How do you derive the components of the inertial advective wind in natural coordinates? The vector form of the inertial advective wind is: I have been able to find the components in cartesian ...
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Is surface temperature relevant for the creation of high- and low pressures areas?

Trying to truly understand high- and low-pressure systems, I find explanations contradicting. The question is: Where is the mistake in my line of thoughts? Looking from a surface point of view: More ...
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How much would weather data from ocean-going vessels improve climate research?

I would like to know how good the weather data coverage is on the surface of the world’s oceans, and how much it would improve climate research/models if weather observations from ocean-going vessels ...
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With all the rain Seattle gets, why is widespread flooding relatively rare?

The Puget Sound region is wedged between the Pacific and the Cascades...you'd think with all that rain (and snowmelt in the warmer months), there would be catastrophic flash flooding in lowland areas, ...
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How big was the eye of the El Reno tornado?

As far as I know, the EF-3 El Reno tornado is by far the largest tornado since meteorologists have started observing them. Tornadoes also have eyes, like hurricanes, but are way too small compared to ...
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Which factors determine the predominant precipitation type of supercells during tornado outbreaks?

A tale of two outbreaks. April 27, 2011 featured classic supercells that were extremely-fast moving (forward speeds of 60+ mph) in a northeast direction. James Spann noted this while covering the EF4 ...
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Why is it so warm in the Pacific Northwest of North America right now - mid April 2021?

Temperatures are 5-7 degrees Celsius above average in southwestern British Columbia, and it's surreal for it to be so warm and sunny when the deciduous trees are still mostly barren.
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What does a change in the mean pressure across 750 km indicate/signify?

Coming from the aviation site: What is the westerly index? The westerly index is: ... the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure difference between ...
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Snow on a relatively warm day

Outside my window it's snowing. This isn't so strange, even for the South of England in mid-April. What is surprising is that the ambient air temperatures (according to the Met-Office) are about 7 or ...
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What is “small layer thickness” defined as in terms of bulk Richardson number approaching gradient Richardson number?

In many sources (https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bulk_richardson_number), bulk Richardson number is defined as an approximation to gradient Richardson number. The prior only approaches the ladder ...
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Determining probability of precipitation from GFS data

Looking at the index files in https://ftp.ncep.noaa.gov/data/nccf/com/gfs/prod/, there's no probability of precipitation (POP) data provided. (There is a ...
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Why does Japan get so much snow?

Japan seems to get a surprising amount of snow in winter, compared to other places that are as cold or colder. The snow seems to be concentrated on the west side of the country, which suggests the ...
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How to specify a certain place in a (CDS) weather data query?

I am trying to get time series data for a specific place (latitude and longitude) for different weather elements from the CDS datapool. Therefore, I am using the cdsapi package and can run queries ...
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Why is the mean meridional mass stream function multiplied by g/2π?

I was reading this material on the mean atmospheric meridional circulation and the definition of the meridional mass streamfunction: http://www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/faculty/Cook/Hadley_book.pdf (...
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173 views

Relation between Magnitude of Greenhouse Effect and the Concentration of GHGs like $CO_2$

The Average Surface Temperature of the Earth is calculated by the following equation: $$\sigma T_s^4=\frac{(1-A)\Omega}{4}+\Delta E$$ where, $\sigma$= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant $T_s$= Average Surface ...
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Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
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How to calculate the specific humidity based on the saturated specific humidity?

I am using ERA5 data to drive the land surface model. One of the forcing required by LSM is specific humidity. We want to use the 2-m specific humidity. So how can I calculate the specific humidity ...
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Relationship between rainwater and solar radiation

I am an enthusiast in this area and reading some scientific articles on precipitation forecasting and solar irradiation, I was wondering if these two variables have any direct correlation or ...
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Question regarding an ice age caused by impact event(s)

If a hypothetical series of debris were to collide into a planet like Earth, I'm aware that dust could very well be sent into orbit, causing global cooling. If this were to happen, exactly how would ...
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High vertical resolution atmospheric sounding data

I'm currently doing some analysis using atmospheric sounding data available at University of Wyoming (I assume these are from the GTS network). But, the vertical resolution of the sounding data ...

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