For simple calculation, use this: https://www.calculatoratoz.com/en/optimum-number-of-rain-gauge-stations-calculator/Calc-5418
You need to know the CV and degree of error (example: 10%).
CV can be calculated from average and stdev of monthly rainfall in certain area. The equation is CV = 100*stdev/avg.
Then number of optimum rain gauge will be N = (CV/error)^...
I am presently working on exactly this.
I am using climate reanalysis data, to fill in the 'empties' since my climate stations are far away from each other. Or, sometime, I have N/A's in my series that I would like to fill-in or relate.
From the Copernicus site:
Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of ...
Unknown, namely because most scientists in "Earth science" related spectrum largely work in the public sector i.e. tax payer funded research (museums, smithsonian, various universities, USGS, etc) hense bias to human anthropological warming tends to be "Yay". You don't receieve funding for a circumstance you don't take as inherently ...
What you are seeing is the netadata about one grib message, specifically the 850 mb level (as that is what you specified). Based on my guess, it looks like it is a narrow boxed subset, not the corners like you want.
Without knowing what dataset you are inquiring about, I can only guess. But from what I see, this is what I can tell.
The first column ...
You should expect some negative values for $dp$ as that's the pressure difference from 1000 hPa. Another thing that are doing wrong is not scaling your $dp$ values to convert from pascals to hPa. The product of a density in kg/m3, acceleration in m/s2, and distance in meters is pressure in pascals. Divide by 100 to yield hPa.
It also appears that you have a ...
@BarocliniCplusplus's answer is correct.
To convert Ozone (kg/kg) to (ppbv) you only need molar masses of dry air (28.9644 g/mol) and molar mass of Ozone (47.998 g/mol).
(Mass mixing ratio in ppb) = (28.9644 / 47.9982) * 1e9 * (Mass mixing ratio in kg/kg)
[Source: ECMWF webpage]