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Ice does crack completely naturally without human intervention. There are many reasons it could do so, one is as mentioned before mechanical stress from in- and outflow that lifts/settles the ice cover. Another one is temperature stress from density changes, because ice changes its density e.g. depending on diurnal temperature changes or simply by cooling ...


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Your question should have been much more concise, it is too rambling and long-winded. With regard to your paragraph on creating a new branch of diving, it also deviates into the world of sport. The marks I saw in your video looked as though they were made by skaters, but you ask whether there is a natural method that a frozen lake could develop a crack ...


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As @Erik notes, the answer to your question is vacuously "yes". Digging a little deeper, we can break this into two questions: Given the vast amount of weather data available (http://opendata.stackexchange.com/questions/10154/sources-of-weather-data/10155), is it possible to find correlations (either linear or non-linear) between known data such as ...


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I live along the Missouri River near Jefferson City MO. I've lived here since 1983. There has been a couple of times in the past where my town experienced blizzard like conditions where between 18 to 24 inches of heavy wet snow was dropped overnight. These events were confined locally to the river valley. Go North or South and the amount of snow dropped ...


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From what I see, for some reason the GSD has split the 't/td' column into two separate columns, and has multiplied the temperatures by 10. Why? Maybe to get rid of the decimal point... So when you see a value < -500 it's actually < -50 °C. Other changes: - Pressure and altitude have been switched. - Pressure has also been multiplied by 10, so it's not ...


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I got the solution https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_to_convert_the_units_of_specific_cloud_liquid_water_from_ERA5_kg_kg_to_kg_m2 and https://www.nwpsaf.eu/site/download/documentation/rtm/docs_rttov12/rttov_gas_cloud_aerosol_units.pdf In the above link the conversions between kg/kg , g/m3 , kg/m2 can be explicitly derived EDIT The summary of the ...


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The GSD file is just a text (ASCII) file, which you can read with almost anything you want. Since you are using python I would recommend looking at Pandas and especially the pandas.read_csv functionality. I am using this URL as an example now: https://rucsoundings.noaa.gov/get_soundings.cgi?data_source=Op40&latest=latest&start_year=2019&...


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You can easily calculate the monthly minimum and monthly maximum temperatures since you have these data directly (even though a temporal resolution of one hour is quite coarse in my view, but it, of course, depends on the application). You can only try to estimate the average monthly temperature, which is somewhere between the average minimum and average ...


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From my experience, first of all, you should calculate the hourly average, in your case should be the average of the 2 minimum and 2 maximum temperatures. (In your sample data you need the 0:00 hours of 2009-05-02, as it is covering 23 hours) Once you have the average by hour in a day, you can go for the daily average, then monthly average and so on... For ...


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Alec Bennett calculates resistance to heat flux values in an urban canyon as part of his MSc in meteorology dissertation: Heat Fluxes from Street Canyons. The calculated values range from 76.6 to 84.2 and are based on measurements taken on May 18th and 19th 2004 from 08:00 to 17:00 (both days). See the two tables in the Appendix on page 68 for the full ...


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This is not an answer average monthly minimum, maximum and mean temperatures... I'm missing something. Why not take the highest temperature in May 1960, May 1961, May 1962, and so on, and average. That would give you the average highest temperate for May. You can do something similar for average lowest temperate. For mean temperature, you'll have to average ...


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According to Trenberth, Fasullo & Kiehl update of the "Earth's global annual mean energy budget" seems worlds clouds in average reflects about 23% of incoming sun radiation (about 79 W/m2). Data from 1997 (that could be outdated) estimates clouds blocks approximately 20-25 W/m2 (6-7% of surface radiation). If so, aerosols has a small role in IR block, ...


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First of all, I am unsure if your question relates to Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) or field-experiments. I would say divergence is one of the best variables to look at since vertical motion is both difficult to measure and to model. Also, some nowcasting models which includes a nudging method to increase precipitation intensity in the model, based on ...


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WRF is using the sigma (terrain-following) vertical coordinate. However, as @gansub has already referred, in WRF V3.9 you can now select a hybrid sigma-pressure vertical coordinate. The advantage of this is that the coordinate is terrain-following near the surface, but it 'converts' to pressure levels at higher levels, which improves the accuracy of the ...


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