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1

Dr. Fujita constructed a scale connecting Beaufort Force, Fujita Scale, and Mach number which shows that the Fujita Scale theoretically goes to 12 (F12). As fortunate (and as horrible) as it would be to successfully ride out an EF5, imagine if you will surviving a tornado packing Mach 1 winds! !?!


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The article can be found here in Geophysical Research Letters: Fan, W., McGuire, J. J., Groot‐Hedlin, C. D., Hedlin, M. A. H., Coats, S., & Fiedler, J. W. ( 2019). Stormquakes Geophysical Research Letters, 46. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL084217 Abstract Seismic signals from ocean‐solid Earth interactions are ubiquitously recorded on our planet....


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There's not much context, but my guess is that this was a cavum cloud (a.k.a. punch hole or fallstreak), that was caused by an aircraft. The UK Met Office describe how these form: They form in clouds of supercooled water droplets, water below 0 °C but not yet frozen. These water droplets need a tiny particle, a nucleus, to freeze or to be cooled below -...


2

I think it could be artificially formed. The parallel background clouds are natural formations; I have seen such formations over Hereford so straight, extensive and parallel that they looked artificial, but weren't. However, the transverse cloud in your photo runs contrary to the natural airflow. One possibility is that an aircraft flew cross grain through ...


2

Maybe you can use infrared satellite images to get the cloud-top temperatures and estimate the height of them over vertical temperature profiles (e.g. radiosondes). But this ís just workingg for the clouds at the top. You can't see what's beneath them unfortunately.


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If it rains hard enough it will completely strip the atmosphere of co2 in that area. A very simple experiment can chart the co2 captured by rain droplets in relation to the intensity of the rain over time. Once it's done raining the replenishment of co2 in the depleted area is fairly quick. It takes about 3 minutes 30 seconds for the co2 to evolve. The ...


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(not an answer, too long for a comment) Strictly speaking, the answer is yes, since the temperature generally increases during the day and falls at night (and local time is a local variable), the barometric pressure and humidity can indicate if a storm is coming (there were some really old fashioned weather prediction "clocks" that did this). Realistically, ...


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IF there has been a steady wind direction over that 24 hrs, then yes, this will give you the average wind speed. If the wind has changed direction, then there may have been higher speeds that have partially cancelled each other out.


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Rainbows are created under certain light conditions when water droplets in the atmosphere act like a prism and refract sunlight. Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum which covers electromagnetic waves from radio waves with a wavelength of 1000 m (long wavelengths) to gamma rays with wavelengths around 0.01 nm (short wavelengths). Sunlight is ...


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