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31 votes

What is the deepest we have ever gone into the Earth?

Probably a bit over 4 km, in this South African mine: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mponeng_Gold_Mine But as the link mentions, the mine operators go to considerable lengths to reduce the mine ...
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30 votes
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Why are cobalt deposits so unevenly distributed?

Part 1 The Democratic Republic of the Congo's Katanga Province contains almost 40% of the world's reserves of cobalt [1]. Why are deposits concentrated so strongly in such a small portion of the ...
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19 votes
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Can ultrasounds be used to map the density of large underground regions?

Sound-like waves are routinely used to image the subsurface, but mostly well below the ultra-sound band. Several methods involve sound-like vibrations: Reflection seismic — the most important ...
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19 votes

What is the deepest we have ever gone into the Earth?

Since you termed it based on sea level, the gold mines in South Africa are not the deepest, they begin at an elevation of ~1500 m, meaning their 4 km depth is only 2.5 km below sea level. The Kidd ...
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  • 291
18 votes
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Why would India have so much thorium on its beaches?

why would India have so much thorium on it's beaches...? Because monazite. Monazite is a rare earth element phosphate, with the formula CePO4 (where Ce stands not only for cerium, but all of the are ...
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12 votes
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How many joules are required to mine a unit of coal?

The efficiency of coal as a source of electricity is very low: typically of the order of 30%. So losses are of the order of 70%. But losses due to energy expended in the extraction of the coal itself ...
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11 votes
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Is there likely to be coal under the Sahara?

The older rocks underlying the Sahara are mostly granite, schist, or gneiss, all mixtures of igneous and metamorphic rocks forged deep beneath the surface This stable mass of rock has been covered ...
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8 votes
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Urgent, Please help, where can I find worldwide standards of manganese mining?

Your issue is an issue for all types of mining near residential or built up areas, not just manganese mining. The distance that mines should be from built up areas depends on the competency of the ...
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8 votes

Why are cobalt deposits so unevenly distributed?

Its not that cobalt is less abundant or wide spread. What you are noticing is that gold has been mined for far longer than cobalt and is far more valuable. Gold has been mined even in antiquity and ...
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7 votes
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Why do diamond mines seem to always appear conical? Are the above-ground mines all that way? All at about the same angle?

The main hard rock sources of diamonds are either kimberlites or lamproites. Many kimberlite and lamproite deposits occur as: carrot-shaped, vertical intrusions termed 'pipes' As the term "carrot-...
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7 votes
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What are the phenomenon (artificial and natural) in play in this photograph "350m beneath Berezniki in Russia"?

As stated in the caption for the picture this is an inside view of a potash mine. Mining professionals regard potash, like most coal, to be a soft rock; unlike hard rock such as most metal sulfides. ...
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6 votes
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Are there sufficient quantities of limestone to dump in the ocean to reverse acidification?

Getting figures on the amount of limestone available is difficult. Apparently "limestone makes up at least 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks". One way to answer your question is by ...
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6 votes

What is the long term impact of large scale removal of material from subterraneal caches on the structural integrity of the soil?

The answer to your question will depend on the type of material and the depth. I will restrict this answer to groundwater withdrawal to focus the discussion. Of course there can be effects from other ...
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5 votes

Spatial Continuity in python

Your last question was easy to answer, this one is more difficult. You could look at correlation and dependence, but you'd be better off looking at variography. That's the easier part of this question ...
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5 votes

Interpreting Prospecting Ore Test Result

One lab result does not an orebody make. In terms of economic potential nothing can be ascertained from data in the question. When it comes to minerals and economics there are two terms that need to ...
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4 votes
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Where can I find a list of active mining claims in my area (Northern Nevada)?

You may want to check this out ESRI open data http://opendata.arcgis.com/ if this is what you were looking for. One another thing is that you might want to contact BLM's Nevada State Office. http://...
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4 votes

What is the geologic origin of the Bauxite deposit in Bauxite, Arkansas, and could there be more?

The short answer is, bauxite requires a particular alumina-rich source rock and a specific set of conditions and processes to concentrate the aluminum in a specific order. From the Encyclopedia of ...
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4 votes
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Is there a list of instances where mountains that have been mined out of existence?

Of course it happens elsewhere! However, I'm not sure there's a specific term, generally. Even in the "montaintop removal" country of Appalachia, there is no more prosaic term for the practice other ...
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4 votes
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Canadian equivalent to AMLIS database?

Try: Federal Contaminated Sites Inventory as well as Crown Contaminated Sites Database (British Columbia) Orphaned/Abandoned Mine Site Rehabilitation (Manitoba) Abandoned Mines Information System-...
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4 votes

Can mining trigger earthquakes?

Yes. In addition to triggering natural earthquakes, (as pointed out by @hichris123) Mines can also be sources of artificial seismic activities due to mine collapses and/or explosives. Miners will ...
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4 votes

Why is lithium so unevenly distributed?

Start by reading my answer on a different website: https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/a/96630/8083 This is a quick explainer on what "reserves" actually are. Lithium is mined from two main sources:...
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4 votes
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Why is lithium so unevenly distributed?

The term "reserves" doesn't mean what most people think it does. A mineral deposit is simply a concentration of a mineral; a reserve is a deposit that is both known and economical to extract. As an ...
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4 votes
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Why can't we dig deeper?

Here is a thermal profile of the borehole: (Source: Fig 5 in Yuri A. Popov, Sergei L. Pevzner, Vyacheslav P. Pimenov, Raisa A. Romushkevich, New geothermal data from the Kola superdeep well SG-3, ...
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4 votes

Will Lithium batteries mean we have to exploit Co-Mn-Ni nodules from the seafloor?

No it is not inevitable that the production and continued used of lithium batteries will mean the exploitation of cobalt, manganese and nickel nodules from the sea floor. Sufficient quantities of ...
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  • 21.8k
4 votes

Where can I find geological maps for countries from Africa?

You may find some of the maps you seek on the OneGeology portal, which gives access to both regional mapping and maps uploaded by national geological surveys. You could also review the data available ...
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3 votes
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What kind of mine pit in northeastern Minnesota could make residue that turns water turn bright red?

From the red stain in the water & the rocks in the lower left of the picture it looks like iron ore. Also, the red stain in the water appears to be a colloidal suspension, consistent with minor ...
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3 votes

Are there sufficient quantities of limestone to dump in the ocean to reverse acidification?

Yes, there is much more than enough limestone, by several orders of magnitude, to neutralize the acidity that we are creating - so much so that I am not even going to bother with the back of an ...
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3 votes
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How much Sulfur Dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere from a mine fire?

All coal deposits are different. Coal chemist is highly varied, and the amounts of sulfur and heavy metals with the coal seams varies with each deposit & within seams. This is due to the ...
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