Hot answers tagged

7

you are missing a big factor, the plates are not moving due to the momentum of an initial impulse. They are being actively moved by the push and pull of mantle convection. Much like how icebergs are pulled along by ocean currents. the iceberg analog however breaks down because icebergs melt before they can do much complex interaction, where as continental ...


7

Right, there are a lot of misconceptions about this. They are mostly to do with the difference between the magnitude of carbon storage and the rate of carbon uptake, and also the difference between whole site carbon storage and above ground biomass carbon storage. There is also ongoing research taking place which (as you might imagine) takes a very long time ...


6

Probability is used in weather forecasting. I will only highlight some examples due to my lack of knowledge in some areas. Before initializing a forecast model the data needs to be assimilated. That means we need to somehow put measurements from ground based stations, satellites etc. into the model and fit this data to the grid. We then have an "...


6

The problem with the cancelling you suggested is that it is imposed globally for the PDE and not locally (just on the thin layer). Usually when we talk about vertically layered media we use a plane wave $\exp(i(\mathbf{k}\cdot\mathbf{x}-wt))$ trial solution (you can plug this in to confirm that it satisfies the PDE) and match boundary conditions at the ...


5

You need to use the following line in your model setup: COORDINATES SPHERICAL Otherwise SWAN will try to calculate wave properties on a curvilinear grid with coordinates provided in meters. In your present case, the computational area is 0.47 m x 0.24 m instead of degrees longitude and latitude.


4

I think you are asking a question with a variety of different constraints. I'll tackle a couple of them. What is the simplest atmospheric model to operate? That would be the Zero-dimensional energy balance model. It has almost zero resolution and no temporal capacity. What is an atmospheric model that can be easily installed and run? The Weather ...


4

This might be product specific, but if it's anything like my MODIS experience this refers to start and end latitude and longitude. Are you looking at a small region on the Mississippi/Louisiana border?


3

We need both paleodata and models, in fact the relationship between paleodata and the climate at a certain time is typically evaluated through models. Paleodata does not actually measure climate observables directly (tempreture/pressure/salinity/other) but instead is (e.g.) a geochemical quantity related to one of those. For example, the two most ...


2

The suggestion above to check historical data to get an idea of the time to peak/ time of concentration, and a get sense of the general storm response time is a good one. There are also empirical methods to relate the catchment slope, runoff coefficient, etc. to the time to peak/ time of concentration, which sounds like what you are looking for. You can find ...


2

Yes, it is possible. The documentation for Hydrus-3D give you the syntax (http://www.pc-progress.com/en/OnlineHelp/HYDRUS3/Hydrus.html?RunningComputationalModulesinaBa.html) In brief here is what you need to do: In the installation folder of Hydrus, create a text file, name it run.bat You need to write two lines of code for every simulation you wish to ...


2

Welcome to StackExchange SE! I don't think I fully understand your question, but I'll try to answer it. Reanalysis data is the use of weather models and data assimilation to piece back the weather. It is a 4-dimensional dataset (Latitude, longitude, pressure levels, and time). You can do whatever you wish with that data (provided you follow the legal ...


2

The word "hydrological" is meant to indicate that the model only includes a sort of bulk description of the water: where it is, how much is there, and where it flows. It generally only includes length and time scales of interest to the system in question. So, for ground water models, this may be tens of meters and longer in horizontal direction, and hours ...


2

Weather forecasting (meteorology) is not climate modelling. As such, a meteorological model to forecast temperatures over years is not the right tool for the job. But there is indeed a very, very simple climate "model" that only accounts for CO2 and temperature. You find it here: https://scied.ucar.edu/simple-climate-model with a little guide: https://...


1

Eureka! I and my prof figured it out. We found something interesting - that the energy density actually depends on a number of internal variables, namely, the displacements of the outer and inner walls, and porosity (which we already knew). So, when we specified the outer displacement to always be a fraction of the radius of the outer sphere, that seemed to ...


1

I would be surprised if the rainfall-runoff relationship would show a linear relationship for extreme events. I would consider that to be a blanket approach, if you mean using a constant coefficient. So consider using a higher order relationship. Another thing to consider is whether the rainfall runoff relationship depends on the soil moisture. Maybe check ...


1

It sounds as though you have ideas on the tools you'd like to use, but not on an actual question that you want to use them to answer. You probably need to either come up with such a question, or focus instead on methodology - in studying the tools and the effectiveness of using them in a given scenario. For nearly any modelling project, its viability will ...


1

The simplest way I've found in Python is to use the getvar function with the 'ua,' 'va,' or 'wa' variables from the WRF-Python module. Alternatively, you can take the midpoint between the staggers. Edit: For example, using the WRF-Python module, you can get the destaggered wind variables with the following code import netcdf4 as nc import wrf f=nc.Dataset('...


1

Oh, I think I finally figured out what those values are. The data is tornado data and I believe the slat, slon are Start locations (of the tornado) and the elat, elon are End locations for the tornado. This only became apparent when I added those locations to a Google map and saw the distances. Here is a map with the two locations on it (obviously the ...


1

Yes, using GMPES. E.g., you can look at the USGS shakemap which includes some measure of intensities such as PGA/PGV. Just choose an appropriate cut-off value and you have your area.


1

Google's "Web Mercator" projection is a very different beast from the Mercator projection. The former provides a coordinate system for the area you are viewing, oriented in the way you rotated the view. The formulas you put in your original question are probably more computationally efficient when used for this purpose, but they do not foster ...


1

The Mercator Projection has been used and it is used since the XVI century due to it maintain the course, rhumb or route. So it is useful for navigation. As the Earth is approached by a ellipsoid, then you get the formulas that you saw on Mercator Projection. This transformation it is complicated for a ellipsoid, as the Earth curvature it is not a constant, ...


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