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1

Optical LIDAR systems for marine use are being developed and are being used for accurate mapping of archaeological remains under water. See https://optics.org/news/8/3/26. However if a sonar is too big and impractical, I imagine oceanographic LIDAR is similarly out of scope.


2

It seems that attenuation is much greater at ultrasound frequencies: 50 khz 12-15 dB/km 0.5khz 0.024 dB/km It depends on what distance and resolution you need.


5

To my best knowledge, the paper by Held & Soden (2006) is the first paper that discussed the concept of the rich get richer. They used the climate change experiments generated for the Fourth Assessment of the intergovernmental panel on Climate Change or in other words, climate projections using climate models forced with different CO2 scenarios. One of ...


2

Yes, the deterministic GFS model (one model) has higher spatial resolution than the GEFS models (31 models). That is, that the latitude and longitude of the entire world is incremented by 0.25° in the GFS and 0.5° in the GEFS (they upgraded both in the past two years). When people say "high resolution," think of it like "more pixels" on a ...


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