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You're asking Why do human populations concentrate near fault lines, volcanoes, etc.? But the real question is Do human populations concentrate near fault lines, volcanoes, etc.? And the answer is not necessarily positive. Let's look at where earthquakes are: and active volcanism: Both maps are from Volcano Discovery. Here's a population density ...


7

An asteroid impact in the ocean is an oversized example of throwing a pebble in a pond - both will produce waves in a concentric pattern from the point of impact. The height of the waves and the energy they would have would depend on the amount of energy the asteroid transferred to the water at the impact sight. The energy transferred will depend on the ...


7

A flood occurs when land that is normally dry is covered by water. The source of the flood water is generally from bodies of water, such as: rivers, lakes, dams and even the ocean. Rivers can flood, when: the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel Similarly, excess water run-off during heavy rain can cause floods when the water cannot drain ...


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Pretty confident to answer No here. Tsunamis are caused by water displacement due to earthquakes; this has nothing to do with global warming. Any changes in density would be trivial, and although the water would have more thermal energy, this would not affect or be influenced by the kinetic energy of the Tsunami. The only way in which a tsunami would be ...


5

First thing first: It is very hard, if not impossible, to attribute a single anomalous weather event to climate change. The weather exhibits a huge amount of natural variation. The recent spate of cold weather that recently has hit the eastern part of North America is consistent with climate change and has even predicted to be a consequence of climate ...


5

Being in a submarine in the ocean is not a good idea because if a large asteroid hits the ocean the shock wave created, and its energy, would be very large. If the submarine survives intact its occupants may not. The occupants could be thrown about so much they liquidize & turn into people puree. Similarly being airborne in a blimp or airplane would be ...


5

There are two solutions using the least square method for calculating $C$ and $D$. Both methods yield different results for your constants. There is no correct method. Method of least Squares We define the least square error as follows: $$\text{lse} = \sum_{i}{\left(y_i - f(x_i)\right)^2}$$ The $y_i$ and $x_i$ are our data through that we want to fit a ...


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An excellent example of this would be the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. The specific nature of this eruption features massive amounts of aerosols and ash put into the atmosphere. When Mount Pinatubo erupted, the amount of dust and ash it injected into the atmosphere was responsible for a worldwide reduction in temperature of 0.5–0.6 °C in the northern ...


4

The same issue arises when land is bought and sold. The area used is the flat area from a plan. Slope is not considered because it would require at lot of data because the rate of change of topography and slopes is never uniform. Also the calculations to determine the true area can be convoluted if the change in topography is complex.


3

Difference #1: Speed. The warming at the end of the ice ages went much, much slower than what we are currently experiencing. Estimates of the amount of warming since the beginning of the industrial revolution are in the order or 1 degree Celsius* - that's in 100-150 years time. * Page 7 When the Earth moved out of ice ages over the past million years, ...


3

C is purely empirical for any given situation. BEWARE of such equations! Using coefficients to six significant figures gives the illusion of high precision when, in fact, the whole approach is extremely 'rubbery', and highly dependent upon the local geology / soil type / local hydrology. The expression is only valid for the location in which it was ...


3

There are micro-tectites galore, strewn over thousands of square kilometres. But remains of the actual bolide? Hard to say, because the impact crater is now buried under 600 metres of sediment. Earlier this year the joint IODP-ICDP drilling program drilled to a depth of 1300 metres. As far as I know, their findings are not published yet.


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It would be interesting to read peer reviewed scientific papers that discuss the feasibility of "restarting Mars' core" via an asteroid impact. Some links would be appreciated. I am very sceptical that it could be achieved in such a manner. Small asteroid impacts would change the topography of the surface by creating new craters and spraying crater ejecta ...


2

A quote from the summary of the book you listed: feeding torrents of freshwater into ocean basins that rapidly filled to present levels. The removal of the enormous weight of ice at high latitudes caused the crust to bounce back triggering earthquakes in Europe and North America and provoking an unprecedented volcanic outburst in Iceland. A giant ...


2

Suppose you don't have your house insured. When natural disaster strikes your uninsured house, you are fully responsible for the costs in getting your house repaired. If you have a mortgage on your house, you are still liable for paying that mortgage even if the house is reduced to rubble. An insurance policy transfers some of that risk to the insurer. Now ...


2

Insurance may be the best example. As the document you linked to describes in some detail, there are lots of ways of spreading risk. Traditional insurance is one common mechanism. I think their point is that with a functional insurance model, the effects of a natural disaster may be less profound and/or less protracted (see page 27 of the report). Think of ...


2

Drought is not comparable to earthquakes and hurricanes because of the difference in time scale involved. We can generally consider earthquakes and hurricanes to be discrete events at a point in time. Drought, however, has a significant and variable time component. For example, you might consider a year of severely below average rainfall to be a drought but ...


2

I'll add to Ben MS's answer by mentioning the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, that shut down air traffic for quite some time. Another example that comes to mind are tsunamis. The 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean mostly affect South East Asia: Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and the eastern part of India. But other areas were affected as well, ...


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Here's an amazing one: In June 1991 category 3 Typhoon Yunya made landfall in central Luzon in the Philippines and gradually weakened as it moved across the island... however as it was near exiting the island... Mount Pinatubo sustained the largest volcanic eruption in our lifetimes -- almost directly in the center of the storm! Here is a remarkable ...


2

To answer the radiation question, it is both absorbed and reflected into space. A lot of these processes are complex relations between atmosphere, magnetosphere, and solar radiation. Solar radiation does penetrate through as it drives everything we need or any creature needs to live, whether directly or indirectly. Aurora Borealis is caused by Solar ...


2

You can find diagrams of air flow in hurricanes. If your balloon has neutral buoyancy it will go with the flow. Good luck in the complicated currents in the rainbands and eyewall.


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There is a major difference. The climate changes that caused the end of the last Ice Age (and the start/end of previous ones) were basically the result of changes in the Earth's orbital eccentricity and axial tilt. These changes are called the Milankovich Cycles, and you can read more about them here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milankovitch_cycles The ...


1

A historic yet well observed landslide in the East Kootenays of British Columbia took approximately 100 seconds to settle, Frank Slide. The slides at Sierra Leone and the Philippines that you mentioned are a different type of slide made of mud and other unconsolidated materials. I cannot find any information on them but I have witness a few slides in my ...


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Depends where you are in the world, New Zealand has a combination of deep the shallow earthquakes, the shallow ones are associated with the slip-strike faults in the south. The deeper ones on the other hand occur where subduction is the dominant tectonic scheme in the north island, particularly in central and eastern areas. A deep earthquake of a given ...


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Forest fires, and natural disasters in general, get attention when they affect people. Bush fires outside of metropolitan Perth or far away from populated areas do not affect many people. Therefore, media attention is diverted elsewhere. This is not unique to WA: you have the same in NT, northern SA, and the west of eastern states. This is also not unique ...


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No. It depends on the severity. Water would be worse. If an asteroid hit in the ocean we would experience tsunamis the size we get from large magnitude earthquakes. The displacement of the water would be massive. It would also cause things like swimming pools sloshing around, common to the videos you see of hotels from the 2011 Japan earthquake. If it hit on ...


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Vredefort No extraterrestrial iridium anomaly: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1989LPSC...19..733F I'm not sure I fully agree with them, because there is quite a lot of Ir there and their threshold of 200 pg/g seems somewhat arbitrary to me. They claim the Ir was derived from local rocks, but that's a hell lot of iridium! Sudbury There is an an iridium ...


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Yes. Here's a list of common disasters that associate with each other: A twister (tornado) that fused with a wildfire (aka: a firenado) A cyclone (Hurricane) that caused a tsunami (common) An earthquake in the ocean that caused a tsunami (common) ...and probably several more. But many times such an occurrence is typical, and often happen; such as oceanic ...


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a warming planet makes storms worse in two ways. The most straightforward comes when you realize storms are driven by differences in temprature and pressure between different parts of the atmosphere, climate change does not worm all parts of the atmosphere equally leading to greater variability in temprature, by warming the ocean this difference becomes even ...


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This is a very big stretch of the imagination and the technology to do so does not exist and most likely never will. But, adapting noise cancelling technology to cancelling the waves produced by earthquakes could be considered. A system to do so would require an earthquake monitoring system coupled with a wave & strength analysis system that would then ...


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