11

A model is a simplified representation of a system. Rather than try to model everything down to the microscopic level, or as vectors, we often aggregate phenomena across geographic areas, to simplify the computation a lot, and to lose only a little accuracy and precision. So if I want to model the UK, which roughly spans 8°W - 2°E, 50°N - 60&...


10

Yes, there were many model coupling projects in the past, as well as many ongoing coupling projects in the present and near future. The main motivation behind model coupling is the need for the interactive feedback processes between two or more separate physical systems, for example, atmosphere and ocean. Historically, these models have been developed ...


10

Coupler software (e.g. OASIS, MCT, C-Coupler) is frequently used to combine these different components of earth system models. Of course interfacing models with each other using these couplers or other methods always needs some technical work and sometimes also some algorithmic work. Therefore the number of model combinations will always be limited.


8

You would have to cut somewhere along this circle: The only landmass here is New Zealand, eastern Australia, eastern PNG, western North America and some Pacific islands. I'm pretty sure you can tweak it a bit, but that's the basic idea. Notice that this actually shows less than a half because of the relatively low altitude. If you "zoom out" infinitely you'...


5

Specifically the term the values are archived on 2.5° grid means that the values that are being reported are being saved and are available at that resolution for historical values. The higher resolutions (1°x1°, 1/4°x1/4°) mean exactly what they say: the values are reported on a 2-dimensional grid every degree, or quarter degree, across the area of ...


5

I think the simplest answer is through water mass formation, the resulting thermohaline circulation, mixing caused by wind predominantly in shallow regions, and through downwelling processes. The heat exchanged with the atmosphere in the surface layers determine the temperature of the near-surface water. From there, mixing (caused by wind, for instance) will ...


5

To add a bit more mathematical conception to the idea of a grid: think about a 2-D grid(X,Y) as a matrix: this matrix represents a solution to the system of equations you are trying to solve at grid point x,y (individual points on X,Y respectively). Why is it important to make this distinction? Because knowing the resolution, span, regularity and structure ...


4

Starting from scratch and building a "toy model" is unlikely to be successful here, because while you could certainly model Newtonian tides, much of what happens on the continental shelves is tied very closely into the shapes of coastlines and bathymetry, the interaction between the inertia of the tidal wave and friction on the seabed, and so forth - a lot ...


3

It's a moot point, and probably varies somewhat according to the state of the tide. Visually, however, the 'pole of maximum ocean' is about half-way between two atolls in the south Pacific: Tautua, 9°00' S; 157°58' W, and Starbuck Island, 5°38' S; 155°53' W. (Not that I wish to give overpriced and over-rated coffee any undue publicity!). By ...


2

I feel bad answering this one without any research reference, but I can tell you that what you are seeing in the OP's picture is a 'man overboard drill.' In that drill, the objective is to rotate the ship's rear section away from a man who many have fallen overboard and then circle the ship around (in an exact circle) to come up alongside the fallen man. ...


2

My personal best is the Emery & Thomson "Data Analysis in Physical Oceanography". You can find some used versions of the previous editions for a much cheaper price. If you are able to manage the methods described in that book, you will be in good shape. The only one of your requirements it doesn't do is the coding part. If I had to choose one book, I ...


2

Science-quality tools for global and regional tidal heights and transports are available at http://volkov.oce.orst.edu/tides/global.html.


2

This graph at Wikipedia/Wikimedia is part of the answer : source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceanic_carbon_cycle#/media/File:WOA05_GLODAP_pd_DIC_AYool.png en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WOA05_GLODAP_pd_DIC_AYool.png 2.15 mol/m3 at the surface in 1990 seems like a approximative value, which makes approximately 27 g. Now, the two questions left are: How did ...


1

Assessing sea levels is a complicated business, as there are a number of factors which can affect sea level relative to a fixed point on land. For a start, land levels rise and fall; in some places land is lifted up by plate movements or volcanism, in other places it may fall. Rising and falling atmospheric pressure makes very temporary local changes. The ...


1

I can give this a shot. Anyone smarter than me is welcome to offer corrections. The first issue, based on your question is how much closer you move the Moon. (I'm assuming that you're not playing with other variations like the Earth's rotation speed or the Moon's mass). If you want Tides to be 100 times greater, you have to move the Moon 10 times closer. ...


1

Still undetermined, though a number of papers on the subject suggest global warming will increase the variance in both of the climate systems you mention. They suggest more research and more refined models are needed to narrow down the uncertainties. Some definitions: The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the major fluctuation in tropical weather on ...


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