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Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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45 views

Why is reverse osmosis desalination the dominant method used and not heat-based methods? Also why is brine being dumped back into the ocean? [on hold]

So I was recently watching this video regarding desalination efforts around the world and the viability of desalination as a means to provide humans with freshwater. I had a few questions: 1 - They ...
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1answer
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What's really happening with “stormquakes”?

The PBS Newshour article Scientists discover big storms can create ‘stormquakes’ says: A stormquake is more an oddity than something that can hurt you, because no one is standing on the sea floor ...
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Why was the temperature change greater in higher latitudes than in lower latitudes during the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum?

In the "Plankton cooled a greenhouse", which is the article written by Birger Schmitz, it is stated that the subtropical regions became warmer during the PETM(Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum) but the ...
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1answer
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How does nature dilute Ocean and Seas so that we can swim in them?

I have a question about the seas and ocean we swim in. How does the Ocean get rid off all the natural pollutants (for example dead animal debris) and man-made pollutants (human waste, garbage, etc)? I ...
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1answer
50 views

The halocline and sonar

 I studied oceanography many years ago at university and recall a lecturer claiming that submarines in the second world war could pass undetected through the entrance to the Mediterranean.  ...
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1answer
37 views

Can a sonar used to graph the ocean floors detect through polluted and highly populated waters?

So graphing the ocean floors using sonar is not anything new. But what are the limits to sonar? Would it be possible for a regular sonar device to emit sounds that are strong enough to penetrate ...
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0answers
139 views

Cooling effect from the oceans in global warming

The ocean soaks up about 90 percent of the heat of climate change, because of ocean heating. When using the formula of Svante Arrhenius to calculate forcing due to atmospheric $CO_2$ $\Delta F=\alpha\...
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1answer
51 views

Net fluxes of carbon caused by humans

The current and future amount of carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere is what currently concerns and occupies many people. I am looking for a big picture of ...
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1answer
50 views

Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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9answers
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Why does the salt in the oceans not sink to the bottom?

This is something that just occurred to me. If heavier elements sink, then how can the entire ocean be salty? Shouldn't the 'salt', because of its density, all sink to the bottom of the ocean? In ...
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1answer
34 views

Temperature of the earth [closed]

What are the main factors that contribute to the temperature fluctuations/cycles of a location? Is the earth's temperature cycle dictated mainly by the temperature cycle of the ocean? How does the ...
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1answer
27 views

Regional and Relative Sea level

I am a little confused by the terms "regional" and "relative" in the sea level change context. Do the two words have the same meaning? Does the "regional MSL trend" in https://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/...
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Why doesn't sea level show seasonality?

North-hemisphere ice-shelf melts on summer and grows on winter. I would expect appreciable changes on sea-level between seasons, but sea-level looks equal on winter than on summer. Why doesn't sea ...
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1answer
53 views

Beta plane approximation: variation of Coriolis parameter

The Beta plane approximation put me in confusion. Beta plane approximation explain me how the Coriolis parameter changes with latitude. Beta parameter changes with the cos(latitude) but this is ...
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1answer
97 views

What would happen if I installed distributed water fountains in all of the ocean's dead zones? [closed]

As every thalassologist knows, the ocean is filled with great streches of desert with no marine photosynthetic life. What would happen if, for each of these oceanic deserts, I densely filled them with ...
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1answer
42 views

What is the significance of amphidromic points related to tides?

On reading about tide formation and the role of moon's gravitational force, I came across the term amphidromic point. Could someone please elaborate this concept?
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2answers
103 views

Molten salt seas on the future Earth

As the sun gets brighter, the oceans are expected to evaporate by the next billion years or so (the vapor slowly gets stripped off into space). The salt, which is less dense than most rocks, will be ...
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0answers
54 views

Quickly breeding oysters to combat oceanic pollution?

I've been doing some wikipedia binging and it's come to my realization that it may be in the Earth's best interest to raise the world oyster population as quickly as possible. The basis for this is ...
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1answer
67 views

What is the weather data covering the range of 359 to 360 degree

I downloaded a grib file of oceanography (Mean Wave Period) from ERA-Interim and the longitude values give the value at the points is 0,1, 2, 3....357, 358, 359 If I have geographical coordinates ...
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127 views

Could the Grand Canyon be flooded by the ocean if it got deep enough?

The Colorado River has been carving the Grand Canyon for a few million years now, such that the canyon floor is around 6000 feet lower in elevation than the surrounding area, at about 2400 feet above ...
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0answers
37 views

Finding vessel and wave's angle of attack [closed]

I am finding angle between ship's heading and component in wave (wave's angle of attack), not sure if ES is a right place to ask this type of question. Should it be the difference between mean wave ...
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1answer
130 views

Understood cause of sea level rise between 1850 and 1950

This question is based on the following graph from a 2018 report by J. Curry. (I haven't found any peer-review of the report itself so I can't vouch for the validity of its claims, but that's not the ...
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2answers
155 views

Sea cave vs Sea arch

How do you distinguish sea cave from sea arch? If I want to classify a crack of sea cliff as sea cave, has it to have a dead end? Would you call a geological formation as a sea cave even a kayak can ...
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2answers
115 views

What could cause a turn from global warming to global cooling?

Except a hypothesized orbital forcing! Ice cores shows that there are several irregular sharp temperature peaks in between of the big 100,000 years glaciations. What could cause those peaks? Almost ...
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0answers
36 views

Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time generaly passes before a coral reef starts to form around the island? Another ...
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Using salinity to predict rainfall

Recently, a new method has been proposed by Ray Schmitt (WHOI) and collaborators to use salinity patterns in the ocean to predict weather events (more specifically, rainfall) at scales from weeks to ...
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1answer
202 views

How much energy would be required to actively reduce the temperature of the oceans of Earth by 1℃?

Is there a way to calculate the energy required to reduce the heat of oceans? Am I wrong in thinking it is not as simple as reversing the calculation for specific heat of sea water?
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Does long-term exposure to ocean water change the chemical structure of plastic into ocean plastic?

I've just been thinking a fair deal about ocean plastic and the ocean clean-up project. Is there something in saline water that changes the chemical composition of most plastics to make them pretty ...
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1answer
48 views

What are the hottest temperatures ocean life can survive at [closed]

What are the hottest average annual temperature for life in the ocean to withstand? Particularly algae This could include life from all points in earth history.
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1answer
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Why are the seas difficult to navigate at the “southern edge” of land?

The question was inspired by an answer to this question on History SE, which referred to the "at times enormous waves" at the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, and the even more "treacherous" passage ...
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0answers
42 views

Why an inertial gyro has a frequency and a geostrophic gyro does not?

Inertial flow is given by the balance between Coriolis and centrifugal forces. A geostrophic flow is given by a balance between Coriolis and the gradients of pressure. The frequency of the inertial ...
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0answers
122 views

Why do Mediterranean main currents surrounding landmasses turn counter-clockwise?

At North Hemisphere, main superficial currents turn clock-wise, because of Coriolis Effect. I would expect on Mediterranean Sea to have currents turning in the same sense, but, surrounding landmasses,...
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transition elastic deformation to flow

Let's assume a small (and smooth) vertical deformation of the seabed. If done quickly, I can consider it a vertical force generating an acoustic wave in the water, where every particle of water ...
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2answers
103 views

What goes into a tide power prediction for every fifteen minutes over the next twenty five years?

I was watching a segment about tidal power generation on a PBS NewsHour broadcast. I've set the time code at about 11:45 to capture a little background. This bit ...
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2answers
114 views

What is the collective name for the seas of Indonesia?

The seas in Indonesia or Sunda Shelf or Southeast Asia separates the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. The seas in Indonesia itself are broken into many parts due to presence of islands such as Sunda ...
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2answers
880 views

Are there seamounts as close as 100 m to the water surface and not inside any Exclusive Economic Zone?

I did not find any seamounts as close as 100 m to the water surface (100m from the mean surface level at the location of the mountain) that are not part of any Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ.) Do any ...
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1answer
92 views

How to strong winds cause baroclinic intensification in the upper ocean?

Below is an excerpt from The Biology of the Indian Ocean, Bernt Zeitzschel, Sebastian A. Gerlach The more vigorous atmospheric and oceanic circulation during the SW monsoon causes not only the ...
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3answers
11k views

Would oceans regenerate if removed?

On Earth, there is enough Hydrogen and Oxygen to make 13,88 million km$^3$ of water (calculation below). However, oceans contain only a tenth of that. Clearly, most of the hydrogen must be stored in ...
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1answer
32 views

Do icebergs have any impact on ecology?

Are icebergs neutral actors in the environment, or do they have any impact on the local ecology. Do they have any environmental impacts that might influence any part of the biosphere?
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1answer
49 views

Global tide calculation

I am familiar with the concept of harmonic tide coefficients and was wondering about the simplest software solution to calculate tides anywhere, worldwide. Are there any available, open source ...
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1answer
94 views

What kind of temperature unit is “cK”?

An article about ocean temperature history/modeling has this plot: Where the units are given as cK. cK does not seem to be a ...
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1answer
43 views

Measuring Transect Length on Sea Floor

I was wondering if anybody had any insight or thoughts on a technological bottleneck we are facing in data collection. Basically, we have vessels (single operator) dig the substrate for collection ...
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1answer
328 views

How to calculate Wind direction from uwind and vwind?

How to calculate wind direction from uwind and vwind? if uwind and vwind are -1.82 , -3.18 respectively
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1answer
379 views

If ALL the ice melted, what percentage of the Earth's surface would be water?

At the present time, about 70% of the earth's surface is liquid water (perhaps that includes floating ice around Antarctica, and the Arctic Ice cap). What percentage of the Earth's surface would be ...
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1answer
110 views

How much net carbon can coral sequester?

So I am wondering how much carbon any given coral can sequester given that carbon dioxide dissolves in water and forms carbonic acid, and coral uses that carbonic acid in their own calcification ...
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3answers
378 views

How is sea level measured?

In comments on Earth changes due to global climate change, sea level changes is a common topic. I hear quotes about sea level changes in the centimeter and even millimeter range and wonder how such ...
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1answer
57 views

predicting low tide

At 18:03 PDT at La Jolla Cove the lifeguard's bulletin board stated predicted low tide at 5:36 (17:36 PDT?). In fact, it was already after 6:00 and the sun had not yet set. The moon was a waxing ...
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1answer
56 views

Why are climate anomalies calculated relative to 1981-2010 average?

What is the purpose for doing this? Is it inaccurate to calculate anomalies for variables such as sea surface temperature and precipitation based on a different time period?
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1answer
58 views

Deep sea pumps that work on wind power, can they control the weather?

If they used wind power to bring up cold water from far under the ocean in the day time and spray it on prevailing winds going into land, could they make it rain more in arid regions? What weather ...