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The paper Assessing Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise between Gopalpur and Puri, Odisha Coast of India, using Remote Sensing and GIS on page 849 states it used wave height data from the INCOIS website.


Short answer : yes Challenger Deep was discovered by (and named after) HMS Challenger in 1875. This was the world's first true oceanic scientific voyage. They took a LOT of soundings but compared to the size of the oceans they were merely lots of pin-pricks. So your doubt would have been well founded in the pre-satellite era. Nowadays bathymetry is measured ...


Usually, the most reliable wave data for any of these areas come from the Wavewatch III solutions. Either the global solution or the one for specific regions (there is an Indian Ocean solution). The data is available at the NCEP site (https://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/waves/validation/gefsv12/). In terms of what the right metric is for wave height, significant ...


All of the deepest locations are in subduction zones/trenches, where one tectonic plate is being dragged under another one. The greater the angle of subduction the greater the potential for depth of a trench associated with the subduction zone. The deepest zones have subduction angles greater than 70 degrees. The angle of subduction for the Mariana Trench is ...

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