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Why does the salt in the oceans not sink to the bottom? Because there isn't any "salt", per se, in the ocean. Salt, as the compound sodium chloride (NaCl) does not exist as a solid in the ocean. It is dissolved into sodium and chloride ions (charged atoms) that exist within the ocean as a homogenous phase (that is, a "thing"). That said, water with sodium ...


26

Sea level has a strong seasonal signal. The annual variability is less than the daily changes associated with tidal forcing in most locations, but still can be on the order of 5-10 cm (maximum values about 15 cm). The causes of the seasonal fluctuations are mostly associated with seasonal changes in wind intensity and patterns, changes in temperature that ...


24

Ocean waves (and also in mediterranean type seas and larger lakes, but on a smaller scale) are generated by two processes: locally generated waves ("wind waves"), which follow the direction of the wind; waves generated further out in the sea (i.e. "swell waves"), which do not necessarily follow the direction of the wind. During the night, you are probably ...


11

I'm a regular from the Physics Stack Exchange reporting for duty. Why this is a serious question This is a bigger question than you might be giving it credit for. The question is ultimately similar to asking why all the air molecules in the atmosphere do not fall to the floor. Your question comes from a very solid principle in physics which could be called ...


8

Remember that 360° == 0°. They're the same line of longitude. So the gap between 359° and 0° is no more than the gap between 1° and 2°, and should be handled the same way.


7

Turbulence, because seawater is, almost, always on the move saltier water is mixed with fresher by wave action and, to a lesser extent in surface waters, by Brownian motion. In Fjordland the annual rainfall is so high (up to 8000mm) that there is a permanent freshwater layer several metres thick that you can drink from sitting over the salt water from the ...


7

You can follow the instructions I wrote at https://medium.com/@manmeet20singh11/installing-mom6-on-ubuntu-57918a200293?sk%3D9961d6f8565659b05e007349c47568b7&sa=D&source=hangouts&ust=1576058141492000&usg=AFQjCNH74gi6j9XgT6I3509nb8Y0gtj4-Q Installing MOM6 on Ubuntu Downloading the model and basic libraries Following https://github.com/NOAA-...


7

The answer is no, yes and then, perhaps, no. No: water vapour is not "dissolved" in the oceans, rather it becomes part of the oceans through a phase change from vapour to liquid (possibly via an intermediary stage as ice). The process of "dissolving" refers to a substance entering a "solution", which is defined as stable mixture of two or more substances in ...


6

Saltier water has higher mass density, so the gravitational energy can be lowered that way. The concentration differences go up until the free-energy of creating that big a concentration difference balances the gravitational energy change. Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Making some simplifying assumptions, they find: ...


6

It is unlikely just from erosion. There are a couple reasons for this but because of the time scale over which this process would occur, other phenomenons might change the geologic picture completely. The reason the canyon formed in the first place is because of tectonics that uplifted the rocks. From this page: Uplift of the Colorado Plateau was a key ...


5

So will a tangerine sun loom large over red-hot waves softly breaking on abyssal beaches? Probably not. Interesting question, and one might think that yes - you could melt the evaporite deposits that will be left after all the water is gone. The problem is that molten salts are extremely reactive materials. They will corrode any rock they get into contact ...


5

The article can be found here in Geophysical Research Letters: Fan, W., McGuire, J. J., Groot‐Hedlin, C. D., Hedlin, M. A. H., Coats, S., & Fiedler, J. W. ( 2019). Stormquakes Geophysical Research Letters, 46. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL084217 Abstract Seismic signals from ocean‐solid Earth interactions are ubiquitously recorded on our planet....


5

TL;DR: Henry's law describes an ideal linear relationship between the equilibrium amount of a low-concentration solute in a solution and the partial pressure of the solute in the gas phase above the solution. Raoult's Law describes the ideal linear relationship between the concentration of the dominant solvent in a solution and the partial pressure of the ...


4

The Beta effect describes how the Coriolis force affects fluid motion depending on spatial changes due to the curvature of the Earth. In other words, it describes the variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. One can model this change exactly or approximate it via Taylor series expansion at a given latitude. The latter option is typically used to ...


4

Starting with question 2): you can use heat to evaporate the water but you need some sort of energy or thermal exchange to cool and condense it back to liquid. My understanding is that reverse osmosis (RO) is more energy efficient overall. Question 1) Brine is only put into the oceans from system that are near the sea, which usually use seawater as a water ...


4

You need to uninstall netCDF4 as it is not compatible with pyferret library as of now. pip uninstall netCDF4 should do.


4

The carvings are submarine canyons, a part of the continental slope leading from the continental shelf to the continental rise and ultimately the Abyssal plains. They are a product of : erosion through currents and slumping of the continental shelf Like other erosive or slumping effects, they can be self-reinforcing, leading to canyon-like structures. The ...


3

I just came upon this paper by Tomascik et al. (1996). It does not answer directly your question, but I found it sufficiently relevant to post it here anyway. It's a study of coral colonization after emplacement of a lava flow. They found that only five years after emplacement of an andesitic lava flow from Gunung Api in 1988, large parts of this new ...


3

The question is slightly confused, because reducing the temperature of the oceans, in a direct sense, doesn't require energy - it releases it. The amount that is released is simply related to the mass and specific heat capacity of seawater, as you suggest. The missing question, though, is why the ocean is cooling. For it to happen naturally and simply ...


3

There are various charts but not exactly what you want. This one combines burning, industry and cement but shows land sources and sinks separately: CarbonBrief, Le Quéré, C. et al. (2016)


3

Sea water is all very corrosive; the precise composition is not significant. Steel structures are cathodically protected with impressed current and/or sacrificial anodes, usually aluminum. For equipment to be cooled with seawater there are a few choices ;However, for the Navy where reliability is more important than the cost , titanium would be the material ...


3

I'm making my comment an answer. Waves are ubiquitous, except on land ;-). Waves in the open sea are a mix — a superposition — of waves in different directions.1 The dominating direction of large waves is, after a while, the wind direction; but that's not absolute. You have some omnidirectional background "noise" of chaotic movement as well as ...


3

Wind blows from sea to land in day and land to sea in night due to pressure and temperature difference. Not so much. This is common in the Mediterranean in summer, for example, where the area sits under a stable area of high pressure and there is little wind caused by the weather system. Go to the Med in winter though, and you'll find the weather systems ...


2

SOI operates Falkor, which also broadcasts live video. They stream via youtube, currently, as does OET. https://schmidtocean.org/technology/live-from-rv-falkor/ Occasionally other operations, such as Woods Hole, will operate telepresence cruises, but these three are consistent operators in the space as they have dedicated ROVs and satellite equipment/...


2

SLR is thought to be caused by temperature rise, which is caused by CO2 rise and other factors. Temperature has been rising since before 1850. It could be another Question: "Why temperature does not correspond with CO2 levels since 1850". The reconstructions used, in order from oldest to most recent publication are: (dark blue 1000-1991): The ...


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