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Ocean waves (and also in mediterranean type seas and larger lakes, but on a smaller scale) are generated by two processes: locally generated waves ("wind waves"), which follow the direction of the wind; waves generated further out in the sea (i.e. "swell waves"), which do not necessarily follow the direction of the wind. During the night, you are probably ...


7

The answer is no, yes and then, perhaps, no. No: water vapour is not "dissolved" in the oceans, rather it becomes part of the oceans through a phase change from vapour to liquid (possibly via an intermediary stage as ice). The process of "dissolving" refers to a substance entering a "solution", which is defined as stable mixture of two or more substances in ...


7

You can follow the instructions I wrote at https://medium.com/@manmeet20singh11/installing-mom6-on-ubuntu-57918a200293?sk%3D9961d6f8565659b05e007349c47568b7&sa=D&source=hangouts&ust=1576058141492000&usg=AFQjCNH74gi6j9XgT6I3509nb8Y0gtj4-Q Installing MOM6 on Ubuntu Downloading the model and basic libraries Following https://github.com/NOAA-...


5

TL;DR: Henry's law describes an ideal linear relationship between the equilibrium amount of a low-concentration solute in a solution and the partial pressure of the solute in the gas phase above the solution. Raoult's Law describes the ideal linear relationship between the concentration of the dominant solvent in a solution and the partial pressure of the ...


5

The article can be found here in Geophysical Research Letters: Fan, W., McGuire, J. J., Groot‐Hedlin, C. D., Hedlin, M. A. H., Coats, S., & Fiedler, J. W. ( 2019). Stormquakes Geophysical Research Letters, 46. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL084217 Abstract Seismic signals from ocean‐solid Earth interactions are ubiquitously recorded on our planet. ...


5

Because of the limitations of wartime sonar, U-boats could sometimes pass undetected into the Mediterranean through the Straits of Gibraltar, but it was always risky and avoiding detection couldn't be guaranteed. There were many things that limited the efficiency of sonar (or ASDIC as the British called it). It is true that sea water has a tendency to ...


5

The carvings are submarine canyons, a part of the continental slope leading from the continental shelf to the continental rise and ultimately the Abyssal plains. They are a product of : erosion through currents and slumping of the continental shelf Like other erosive or slumping effects, they can be self-reinforcing, leading to canyon-like structures. The ...


5

Yes it is. In fact Rossby waves always move westward in the absence of a zonal mean flow. Before going into detail lets try to explain this qualitatively. In a barotropic fluid the absolute vorticity is conserved. The absolute vorticity is composed of the relative vorticity $\zeta$ and the planetary vorticity $f$ ($f$ is also called the Coriolis parameter). $...


4

Starting with question 2): you can use heat to evaporate the water but you need some sort of energy or thermal exchange to cool and condense it back to liquid. My understanding is that reverse osmosis (RO) is more energy efficient overall. Question 1) Brine is only put into the oceans from system that are near the sea, which usually use seawater as a water ...


4

The Beta effect describes how the Coriolis force affects fluid motion depending on spatial changes due to the curvature of the Earth. In other words, it describes the variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. One can model this change exactly or approximate it via Taylor series expansion at a given latitude. The latter option is typically used to ...


4

You need to uninstall netCDF4 as it is not compatible with pyferret library as of now. pip uninstall netCDF4 should do.


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Increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is leading to an increasing concentration of dissolved CO2 in sea-water. The dissolved CO2 then reacts with the water to create carbonic acid, decreasing the pH as recognised in the question. The solubility of CO2 in water does decrease with increasing temperatures, so the maximum amount of CO2 that can be ...


3

Sea water is all very corrosive; the precise composition is not significant. Steel structures are cathodically protected with impressed current and/or sacrificial anodes, usually aluminum. For equipment to be cooled with seawater there are a few choices ;However, for the Navy where reliability is more important than the cost , titanium would be the material ...


3

Wind blows from sea to land in day and land to sea in night due to pressure and temperature difference. Not so much. This is common in the Mediterranean in summer, for example, where the area sits under a stable area of high pressure and there is little wind caused by the weather system. Go to the Med in winter though, and you'll find the weather systems ...


3

I'm making my comment an answer. Waves are ubiquitous, except on land ;-). Waves in the open sea are a mix — a superposition — of waves in different directions.1 The dominating direction of large waves is, after a while, the wind direction; but that's not absolute. You have some omnidirectional background "noise" of chaotic movement as well as ...


3

I just came upon this paper by Tomascik et al. (1996). It does not answer directly your question, but I found it sufficiently relevant to post it here anyway. It's a study of coral colonization after emplacement of a lava flow. They found that only five years after emplacement of an andesitic lava flow from Gunung Api in 1988, large parts of this new ...


2

Using sonar to map the ocean floor is not usually affected by pollution or by the occasional fish, if it's a normal herring or cod sized fish. Plastic pollution usually floats or sinks so it isn't a problem. A fish the size of a basking shark would show up on the sonar, but it wouldn't be a problem. Large shoals of fish also show up, but it would have to be ...


2

One factor that makes distillation expensive is the alloys necessary for equipment to handle hot brine are very expensive. For ambient temperature osmosis fairly common stainless like 316 is satisfactory although care must be taken in design to avoid crevices and other considerations.


2

based on Hunga Tonga, either within a decade or even before the volcano ever reaches the surface. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00338-019-01868-8 https://matangitonga.to/2019/12/09/Tonga-corals-hunga-volcano


2

I had the same experience when I lived in Cardiff, South Wales. When I lived there, the waters around Cardiff were always greyish and uninviting, but the further away one got, the more blue-green and transparent the sea became. Fifty miles west on the Gower coast, the water was pristine and beautifully transparent, more like the Mediterranean. The reason ...


2

The answer to your question is yes and no. You will not find dissolved H2O in water but water can have dissolved O2 and you can find dissolved hydrogen in water i do not know how common it is in nature but it is possible to dissolve hydrogen in water. And it looks like hydrogenated water is a thing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_water


2

I'm not a chemist, but I'm prepared to take a punt at the answer: No, there is no water dissolved in the oceans. The water is the oceans.


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Yes, the marine biosphere is a carbon sink, and a very important one. It is known that the oceans produce more oxygen and biologically consume more carbon dioxide than all the tropical rainforests. This is done by microscopic blue-green algae, cyanobacteria and phytoplankton of many kinds. Also by green algae such as seaweeds, by sea grass meadows, and by ...


1

During glaciations, the shelves down to ~100m depth would have been above sea level, but they would have been covered by ice sheets. Geology.com The actual "ocean floor" would still be deep water. There is a general explanation of the oil formation here and here, although they don't say when (or where the continents were when the sediments were deposited), ...


1

I take it that your iron balls are hollow and made of rust resistant steel. It would be a fiendishly expensive project, but I doubt it would have the result you suggest. The iron balls would have to be linked together by chain or rope to prevent them dispersing in ocean currents and ending up on beaches around the world, like the cargo of plastic ducks which ...


1

Much of the methyl mercury that enters the atmosphere may be dimethyl mercury, $\text{(CH}_3\text{)}_2\text{Hg}$. This is a very volatile compound which, if it were pure, would have 50 mm mercury or more vapor pressure at 20°C. Complexes involving more electronegative ligands, such as the chloride $\text{CH}_3\text{HgCl}$, are significantly less volatile, ...


1

This answer might be a bit late but here are some common metadata variables that get recorded: For a CTD: Operator Date and time Start and end co-ordinates of station Station Number Sample depths (assuming you'll also be collecting water samples) Here you can also record what the water samples are used for i.e. salinities, chemistry etc Sea state ...


1

Dumping the brine in a desert would probably be a viable solution in a few places, but many towns don't have a handy desert nearby. It would need to be a really barren desert,almost devoid of life, which few deserts are. Environmentalists would be aghast if you flooded the Sonoran Desert with brine. Bonneville Salt Flats might be better, but they are used ...


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