During glaciations, the shelves down to ~100m depth would have been above sea level, but they would have been covered by ice sheets.
The actual "ocean floor" would still be deep water.
There is a general explanation of the oil formation here and here, although they don't say when (or where the continents were when the sediments were deposited), ...
I take it that your iron balls are hollow and made of rust resistant steel. It would be a fiendishly expensive project, but I doubt it would have the result you suggest. The iron balls would have to be linked together by chain or rope to prevent them dispersing in ocean currents and ending up on beaches around the world, like the cargo of plastic ducks which ...
Ok, trying an answer. I don't know if citizen science is actually done. Possible would be sample collection, physical data (water temperature, air temperature), weather conditions, sigthings of rubbish, animals or unusual phenomena. Actually, before the space age ships collected and exchanged weather data to produce on ship weather charts for example. Afaik, ...
Just saying, a seasonal monsoon is a sea/land system with continent wide consequences as well as a daily change of seawind/landwind around a small island.
"Effects of planetary rotation" is too undefined a term imo. Coriolis force will have a strong effect on large scale (10s of km or more) patterns, less on smaller ones. Also local, regional and ...
This answer might be a bit late but here are some common metadata variables that get recorded:
For a CTD:
Date and time
Start and end co-ordinates of station
Sample depths (assuming you'll also be collecting water samples)
Here you can also record what the water samples are used for i.e. salinities, chemistry etc
I had the same experience when I lived in Cardiff, South Wales. When I lived there, the waters around Cardiff were always greyish and uninviting, but the further away one got, the more blue-green and transparent the sea became. Fifty miles west on the Gower coast, the water was pristine and beautifully transparent, more like the Mediterranean.
The reason ...