Metals occur on every continent . The issue is whether or not they occur in sufficiently large deposits for them to be mined economically.
The difference between a mineral deposit and an ore body is economics: can it be mined for a profit?
One of the issues with mineral resources is that once they've been mined, they're gone.
Cornwall and Devon, in the UK, ...
All stable elements (and the radioactive U and Th) exist everywhere on Earth. They're in the sand underneath your feet, they're in your bones, they're in the dust in the air, they're in the ocean. The question is how much.
There are some estimates on the concentration of each element, and there's a nice table that lists all of them in Wikipedia article ...
Part of the problem is in the question itself. In the title, you ask about "in every continent" while in the text, you imply that you are talking about smaller areas.
One premise we can safely assume is that most elements are distributed unevenly. That is a far more relaxed question than you are asking, though.
For an example, look at hydrogen.