# Tag Info

### Is there still a hole in the ozone layer?

Some countries are still illegally using banned chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). "In 2018, high levels of banned chlorofluorocarbons were detected in the atmosphere that were eventually traced to ...
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### Is there still a hole in the ozone layer?

Why is there still a hole in the ozone layer? To some extent, there most likely will always be an area over Antarctica with reduced stratospheric ozone content in late Southern Hemisphere winter. (I ...
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### How does the ozone layer "stay in place"?

For the ozone layer to dissolve, it would need something to bind to. Chloroflurocarbons are one very notable thing that it can bind to, but that doesn't exactly answer the question. While the ozone ...
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### Has a reduction in car use ever had an effect on the ozone layer?

The sequence of events you describe has never happened, for several reasons. As Sabre Tooth mentions in the comments, vehicle emissions have a negligible effect on stratospheric ozone. (Note that ...
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### Do hurricanes cool the earth?

Hurricanes can be viewed as having primary and secondary circulations. The primary circulation is what we see in satellite photos, comprising the winds and clouds that circle the low pressure zone at ...
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### Why is the Ozone Layer 'hole' more pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere?

Two significant factors that influence the size of the ozone hole over the southern pole are temperature and the polar vortex. A number of sources confirm that the ozone hole increases in size when ...
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### Can Ozone (O$_3$) form in a vacuum and if so can it deflect solar radiation

If this would work, would $O_3$ free-floating in very loose clouds in space help deflect solar radiation at all? No, for many reasons: Your cloud will disperse. That's what gases do in vacuum. And ...
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### Why is the Ozone Layer 'hole' more pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere?

Polar stratospheric clouds are the answer. These clouds contain solid nitric acid (mixed with water ice and sulfuric acid), and when they form they remove gaseous nitric acid from the air. This ...
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### Do hurricanes cool the earth?

To summarize David's great answer for folks perhaps looking for an answer more approachable to a wider audience: the answer is a thorough yes to the main question. Hurricanes do have a cooling impact. ...
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### How do I convert kg·kg⁻¹ to ppbV (parts per billion volume)?

So if you have a mass-mixing ratio, you effectively $\frac{ \text{kg pollutant}}{\text{kg dry air}}$. PPBV is parts per billion volume, or number of molecules of pollutant per billion molecules of dry ...
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### How to understand the bizarre high level for both PM2.5 and Ozone

I think it is important to keep in mind the mechanisms that form PM$_{2.5}$ are different than the mechanisms that form O$_3$. From the data your provided you can draw some simple conclusions: ...
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### Which crops are especially sensitive to atmospheric ozone?

I could find a relatively recent review by Mills et al. (2007) that lists sensitivity to ozone for several crops. Among the most sensitive were (table 1) Watermelons (albeit with very few data points ...
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### Can Ozone (O$_3$) form in a vacuum and if so can it deflect solar radiation

How exactly are you planning to mine the lunar regolith for oxygen? The oxygen is chemically bonded to metallic cations and it is very energy intensive to extract as molecular oxygen. You might as ...
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### Why is the Ozone Layer 'hole' more pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere?

The south pole has a continent covering it, which allows the retention of relatively long and cold storms, compared to the North Pole. The north pole is covered by water and is not an elevated land ...
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### Is ground level ozone dangerous to human health when other pollutants are not present, for example, at high altitudes?

Yes high ozone levels are bad for human health and plant development. Integral to your question is the natural high ozone concentrations at altitudes where you are near the tropopause. The ...
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### Persistence time of ozone

Let's first consider the scenario in the absence of free radicals that can act as catalysts of $O_3$ destruction. In such scenario, added to the absence of UV radiation, the photolysis of ozone (\$O_3 +...
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### How to understand the bizarre high level for both PM2.5 and Ozone

Ozone is most closely correlated to temperature. Yes you need NOx and VOCs to create ozone, but you also need enough photolysis driven by sunlight in order for ozone to form. The day analyzed in the ...
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### Why is ozone a greenhouse gas if it absorb UV radiation?

Ozone is indeed a greenhouse gas. But not due to its capacity to absorb/scatter UV radiation, but instead due to its capacity to absorb infrared radiation. In contrast with other greenhouse gases (...
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### How does the ozone layer "stay in place"?

Above accepted answer provide very good explanation to the question. I did some research on it and found some reasons why Ozone layer stays there instead somewhere else. TL;DR : Higher the altitude, ...
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### Why is ozone a greenhouse gas if it absorb UV radiation?

Tropospheric (near the surface) ozone is a powerful greenhouse gas, even in trace amounts. Strataspheric ozone or the ozone layer is opaque to UV rays coming in and it's opaque to IR rays going out ...
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### gamma ray burst, extinction-level event

As bon noted in the comments, that it the time it would take the gamma rays to reach Earth. Gamme rays travel at the same speed as all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light,...
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### How is a UV Index calculated?

The calculation of UV indices requires some effort. Because different wavelengths of UV radiation have different effects on skin, to calculate the UV index you need to apply "McKinlay-Diffey" ...
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### Why do maps of melanoma prevalence correlate negatively with UV index, negatively with ground ozone, and positively with atmospheric ozone levels?

Regarding linking population density with cases of melanoma, that causal link occurs with all diseases. Cases don't occur where people don't live, they occur where people do live. Consequently, the ...
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### Why do maps of melanoma prevalence correlate negatively with UV index, negatively with ground ozone, and positively with atmospheric ozone levels?

I cannot address your specific questions, but with regards to cancer, Cedric Garland has analyzed and presented similar data and attributed a lower incidence of cancer with a higher production of ...
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### Are the polar vortexes main cause of ozone hole?

To blame ozone destruction on the polar vortex would be like blaming trees for surface ozone production downwind of cities. Yes, nature is involved in the process, but nature is not the source of the ...
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### What is the impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone production and vice versa?

Since ozone is a greenhouse gas, I would say it would enhance warming. This article explains how regional climate may be impacted by ozone This article says that while global ozone should decrease ...
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