# Tag Info

### Why do climate experts from the UN/IPCC rarely mention Grand Solar Minimum?

The IPCC do mentions solar minimums and maximums, as part of extremely careful treatment they do of the reconstructions and predictions for the changes in solar irradiance. The Assessment Report 5, ...
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### How it's possible to measure temperature 2000 years ago with such precision?

How it's possible to measure temperature 2000 years ago? Sans the technology used by Bill and Ted ("Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure"), it obviously is not possible to directly measure ...
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### Why do climate experts from the UN/IPCC rarely mention Grand Solar Minimum?

I think the main question has already been answered. But I would like to add to the fallacy that: History shows solar activity is the main driver of our climate, among other factors. The Sun is ...
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### Was Judea as desertified 2000 years ago as it is now?

There has always been a strong north-south rainfall gradient from approximately the Golan Heights (high rainfall), through Judaea and southwards into the arid Sinai desert. We know that this gradient ...
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### Could the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum have been caused by intelligent life forms?

tl;dr: No, we can't exclude that for sure. But we would expect to see some fossil records from such a civilization, which we don't. Yes, pretty much this. To elaborate, I would refer to your ...
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### Why deep ocean didn't freeze during snowball Earth?

At least four things combined to prevent solid freeze-up during Ice/Slush Ball Earth periods: It takes a lower temperature to freeze water under pressure. Deep sea pressures are enormous. Ice ...
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### How did CO₂ originate on Earth before there was life?

The answer is Volcanos. There might be other inorganic processes capable to produce $\text{CO}_2$, but on Earth, the main inorganic source of $\text{CO}_2$ are volcanoes. In some period of Earth's ...
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### Why deep ocean didn't freeze during snowball Earth?

What makes you think Geothermal energy and underwater volcanoes are too weak? The mid-oceanic ridge system alone is 50000 miles long. The mean heat flow at the surface (91.6 mW/m2) has to be ...
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### Is this scientific explanation of The Bible flood accurate?

Fishing through the links mentioned over at Christianity SE, I netted this scientific paper about freshwater and marine fish: Why are there so few fish in the sea?. Apparently the bulk (96%) of marine ...
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### How has and how does the lithosphere affect climate change?

This is a huge and interesting topic. Certainly there are many ways the climate is affected by the lithosphere (and also what is going on in the asthenosphere). The lithosphere is naturally also ...
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### Was Judea as desertified 2000 years ago as it is now?

tldr: It was also dry back then, which is why the people living there were rebels and not the rich elite. I'd like to add a few points to Gordon's answer. First of all, Masada is on the western edge ...
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### Did climate cool down when underground hydrocarbons stocks formed?

Possibly One thing you have to understand is that natural carbon sequestration via the formation of fossil fuel is VERY slow, it can take millions of years to build up the coal we burn in a day. In ...
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### Does general relativity influence climate (vs Newtonian mechanics)

In short: No. Unless multi-million timescales are considered. The reason we keep teaching Newtonian mechanics, is because it is a VERY accurate approximation of a more general theory (general ...
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### Current consensus on the Messinian Salinity Crisis

The present consensus is that the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) took place in 5 stages: 0) Mediterranean restriction from the ocean; 1) Primary gypsum precipitation (starting 5.97 million years ...
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### Did a gamma ray burst contribute to the Ordovician mass extinction?

As a preamble, let me say that I don't know remotely enough on galactic dynamic to know if a supernova could have possibly been close enough during the Ordovician for Earth to be affected by a gamma ...
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### Is there any evidence for higher air pressures in the geological past?

Yes, there is. But the data is still very sparse and errors are large. Past atmospherics pressures have been estimated by at least three different methods: Isotopic composition of fluid inclusions ...
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### Underground temperature record

There are many underground temperature measurements. Monitoring of permafrost is one instance where underground temperature has been monitored for many years. In Europe there are many boreholes ...
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### What, if any, paleoclimate data can be derived from igneous rocks?

Stable isotope signatures in igneous rock (primarily $\delta$18O) can be affected by climate, but the effect is complicated and unreliable enough that I doubt it can really be used to say much about ...
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### Why is the ocean paleotemperature trend downwards?

I recommend you read the original paper Lear et al. (2000). In it they explain that the results are controlled by processes in polar regions and likely associated with the polar surface temperature. ...
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### Did the Neolithic Revolution have an effect on the earth's climate?

Raising herd animals would likely contribute more than mere farms. Many farms simply produce feed for animals anyway, and this can lead to an inflated population which can wreck havoc when released ...
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### How Warm Was the Paleocene?

Redrawn after Zachos et al. 2001. This is a plot of the Cenozoic variations of $\delta\ce{^{18}O}_{Cibicidoides}$ according to Zachos et al. 2001 (this is a bit outdated now but the Paleocene is ...
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### What are the ranges of natural (or pre-industrial era) levels of CO2 in the atmosphere in ppm and tons?

There is no such thing as a single "natural" level of $CO_2$: In Earth's history, there have been levels much higher and much lower than currently, and they are all natural. What we should consider ...
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### Why did the carboniferous period have so much atmospheric oxygen?

The Carboniferous was when the growth of woody plants took off. Non-plant life had not yet evolved the ability to consume lignins, the key chemical components that makes woody plants "woody". Lignins ...
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### 3 Billion years ago, the earth is covered with Carbon Dioxide. Where did it go?

It went into: Limestone Mostly made out of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) Coal Oil and gas Living biomass Subducted into the mantle Occasionally coming back as diamonds Or as volcanic gas All ...
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### At least by theoretical biology - could there be, or should there have been, or was a "southern Taiga" on earth?

I'll define a boreal forest as a place that Has trees, i.e., long-lived woody plants that are capable of growing at least ten meters tall and that grow both upward by extending new branches and ...
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