Episode #125 of the Stack Overflow podcast is here. We talk Tilde Club and mechanical keyboards. Listen now
15

Here is an estimate from Beauchamp and Baud (2002), for parts of the ocean around Pangea, for the latter parts of it's existence (~300-250mya). It is based on various previous papers that looked at deposits of carbonates and phosphate deposits, and made a few assumptions, including a sufficient supply of silica and nutrient inputs, and environments suitable ...


13

Factors determining the maximum possible height of mountains include the rate of uplift versus the rate of erosion[a] and rock strength. Rock strength is controlled by the type and internal structure of the rock in question. There is some evidence that once mountains extend above the snow line, glacial and periglacial erosion have a stronger control than ...


13

Please take into consideration that I am not a specialist of plate tectonics, just a paleontologist. Although this cycle is often nicknamed the Wilson cycle (probably because of Wilson, 1966), the idea that supercontinent formed cyclically every 440Ma was advanced by Worsley et al. 1984 (see review on the subject by Nance & Murphy 2013). The mechanism ...


12

I haven't seen the video you linked to, but from personal experience GPlates is pretty good. It's open-source and runs on Windows, Linux and MacOS X.


11

There are various plate tectonic models around, that are able to provide insight in paleobathymetry and -altimetry. These models include information on sea floor spreading and subduction, which provides much information on bathymetry. Also plate tectonic movement largely drives the uplift of mountain ranges, and combining this with isostatic effects of ...


10

Yes, lithology interpretation/classification directly from seismic inversion products is something people do. I've seen it work very well in oil and gas exploration and development of fields. I personally think that there are two main challenges involved in predicting lithology from seismic inversion impedances. It would be a bit of a cop out to say that ...


10

Can't say much about the later epochs, but the 'hellish Hadean' epoch without oceans is kind of an outdated idea. We have zircon records indicating that crust and oceanic formation was already done to some unknown extent 4.4 Gyrs ago. The zircon analyzed in the nature paper given originates from interaction with sub-crustal material in a watery environment ...


9

I'll begin with your second question, as to how mountains erode. To simplify things, there are two methods: Physical weathering, where the rocks are broken down by weather. For example, there are cracks in rocks that get filled by water which freezes and expands. This maker the cracks bigger and breaks down the rock. Also wind, earthquakes and any other ...


9

Since this percentage is an area ratio, it fluctuates with sea level. Consequently it has fluctuated quite a few during the Phanerozoic (see Haq et al. 1988; Miller et al. 2005 for instance). Now if we're talking in term of oceanic/continental crust ratio, the present day continental crust age repartition shows that, by 2 Ga, ca. 60% of the present day ...


9

+1 for GPlates, but if you happen to be an ArcGIS user (I was once, but I'm better now), then the PaleoGIS plugin is pretty good. Skimming through their material I can't tell if there's any other way to run it, but I don't think there is.


5

Well, the really earliest continents, the answer is we don't. As you go further back the uncertainties get larger and larger. It has been speculated that there have been around 4-5 super continents like Pangaea. Before Pangaea there was Rodinia, but before that it gets more and more sketchy. The oldest ocean floor is only Jurassic. So ocean palaeomagnetism ...


4

The Tethys, which was previously an ocean, became landlocked by the Indian subcontinent to form a massive body of water before the Indian plate collided with the Euarasian to form the Himalayas (about 250-400 Ma). I don't see any visuals on the Tethys as a sea (as opposed to when it was an ocean) widely disseminated on the web. Here's an approximate diagram ...


3

The rocks that make up Britain have been slowly drifting north over geologic time. About 700 million years ago it was near the South Pole! I paused this Youtube video at 75 mya, held the end of a toothpick over Cornwall, then played it to the end keeping the toothpick steady over that point, under which the approximate location of Bilbao, Spain eventually ...


3

The Taklamakan. BEHOLD! I'm speculating but it sure looks like the dried bed of an old lake or inland sea to me! It doesn't stretch the imagination to consider methods for filling it with water. Divergent weather patterns, ice-age, etc. Plus, before india began piledriving asia it was actually submerged (by the aforementioned Tethys sea) and portions ...


2

Determining an uplift rate for rocks is not easy, but certain techniques will produce far more reliable results than others. There are also qualitative techniques that provide estimates so rough as to be almost useless. For example, this technique, from the 'answer', above: So you know this used to be at the sea floor, let's say 300 meters below the ...


2

Compared to some other fields in geology, this one actually has immediate practical implications. By "knowing the history of mountains", you can learn a lot about processes that involve erosion, weathering, seismicity, etc. This is important for risk management and mitigation. Landslides and rockfalls are a significant risk in some countries. There are many ...


2

There were certainly river mouths or estuaries in the rivers that drained off the proto-Himalayas into the last retreating stages of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Such rivers comprised dozens of small rivers and the westward-flowing Proto-Ganges itself, which deposited the Siwalik formation which now forms the Lesser Himalayas. That is, the southernmost 'soft' 'salt ...


1

Ok, I am answering to myself: here are the papers, everything is in there https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6942/full/nature01690.html https://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v3/n2/full/ngeo729.html


1

Also, for a very simple visualization application for plate tectonics and a lot of other information, you can use EarthViewer. It is extremely intuitive and the related Earth History data helps to frame the changes.


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible