20

I can't provide numbers, but a hopefully reasonable outline for your own calculations: All that is required for oil to form is a source-rock brought to the right depths in a sedimentary basin and the oil migrating into a host-rock. If it is economically profitable (See Footnote) it goes into the global reserve calculation. (Petroleum Sedimentology Winfried ...


14

I wouldn't say there's 'almost none' in Europe, but the global distribution of petroleum is uneven. The reason is that petroleum systems need a convergence of conditions that is relatively rare. For a start, the comment about the inappropriateness of a political map for this purpose is spot on. This USGS map of global petroleum systems, and non-petroleum-...


13

Is it possible that the recent droughts are signs of epic crust failure? No. Even though your 5 points do not make much sense, I'll try to answer it anyway. There are no continental plates. There are lithospheric plates, consisting of both continental crust and oceanic crust. While it is true that arches in construction (buildings and bridges) are held "up"...


13

A cavern filled with natural gas would look like an ordinary cavern. However, natural gas is rarely abundant in caverns. Most natural gas reservoirs occur in the pore spaces of sandstones. These pore spaces are generally up to about 1 mm in diameter. Here's a photomicrograph of a sandstone — the green-blue colour is the pore space; Q, F, L, and M are quartz,...


12

I remember a comment on this by Rodney Calvert in the video lecture version of his SEG Distinguished Instructor Lecture "Insights and Methods for 4D Reservoir Monitoring and Characterization": http://shop.seg.org/OnlineStore/ProductDetail/tabid/177/Default.aspx?ProductId=1842 The comment was referring to the possibility of observing a pressure change front ...


10

Sandstone bodies in incised valleys can be good hydrocarbon reservoirs. Incised valleys form on the coastal plain and/or continental shelf during a fall in relative sea-level by a combination of fluvial and marine processes (e.g. fluvial erosion, headward erosion). Here's some coastal plain incision by the Orari River in New Zealand — look at those sand ...


10

According to this University of Wisconsin reference http://whyfiles.org/100oil/2a.html 12.5% of oil and gas is from organisms that lived 5 to 34 million years ago. So if we take an estimate for the total oil in place before human extraction of 4 trillion barrels, this would be 500 billon barrels. So a crude estimate might be 500 billion barrels per 30 ...


9

Are there probably decent oil fields located in the middle of the ocean? tl;dr: no. Hydrocarbon deposits form by thermal maturation (i.e. slow and mild heating) of buried organic matter (i.e. dead things) in sedimentary rocks. This is exactly why you find hydrocarbons... very near the country's shore, on the continental shelf ...because that's exactly ...


8

Oil can be generated from pretty much anything organic. The oldest oil that I know of comes from a porous Eocambrian siltstone in the Sultanate of Oman. This was formed nearly 200 million years before there were any fish around. Apart from that, oil can be formed in any of the geological eras up to the late Cenozoic.


8

Coal, oil and gas can be found anywhere on Earth: on land and on sea. The Japanese once mined coal from beneath the sea floor, using Hashima Island as the base of operations. The island is only 6.3 ha in size. The British also mined coal from under the sea, in the north east of England. As for oil, the following picture from USGS shows the current oil-...


8

In most cases, probably not. Oil could be considered a metamorphic mineral, formed by "gentle" heating. That is gently on a geological scale - still enough to burn your hands! Geothermal systems work most efficiently with a large temperature difference (Third Law of Thermodynamics). As soon as the temperatures increase enough to be interesting from a ...


8

Geological processes are just too slow. Although, given how quickly we are pumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, humanity may well (in a generation or two) be growing biological material as fast as possible and throwing it into deep holes in the ground, which will give another fossil-fuel resource in a few million years. But we'll be doing that just ...


7

The map shown in the question is of proven oil reserves that can be extracted under current conditions. However, it is really showing you the distribution of oil reserves in a political sense, which is not fundamental to the source of petroleum reserves. Instead, you should look at the geology that is responsible for oil reserves. I like the description ...


7

There's a little more to it than its substantial age, but not a lot. First, a bit of background. We need a few conditions for accumulations of oil or gas: A kerogen-rich source rock that has been 'cooked' to thermal maturity. Insufficient temperature, or insufficient time, and it's undercooked; if the temperature is too high, or the rock is very old, then ...


6

The previous answer is actually correct in stating that fish have very little to do with oil formation. Hydrocarbons of a volume that is able to accumulate a reservoir that is economic to produce requires significantly more source material. The greatest volume of material that is a viable source of hydrocarbons is zooplankton, those tiny little things taken ...


6

This isn't really a complete answer, more of a footnote to @EnergyNumbers answer. (Aside: I'm not sure what the definition of a 'geological process' is, but it's not quite fair to say they are 'too slow'. Leaving aside a philosophical point about scale invariance, it's easy to think of fast geological processes. So maybe we can't reject the hypothesis on ...


6

Cumulative world oil production at the end of 2017 was approximately 1.36 trillion barrels.


5

Geothermal reservoirs are very different from hydrocarbon reservoirs. A geothermal reservoir is made of highly fractured igneous/metamorphic rocks which have low intrinsic permeability. Fluids get heated as they flow through fractures to temperatures well above the boiling point of water. The reason they flow is because of thermal gradients which causes ...


5

According "The youngest natural oil on earth" Doklady Chemistry vol. 438, pages 144-147: Prior to this paper, it was known that oil of the Guaymas basin is from young sediments and is 5000 years old. However, their work shows that oil in the Kamchatka volcanic area is "less than 50 years old". Oil is shown through carbon dating to have formed between 1962 ...


5

There have been a few discoveries in the Bay of Bengal. Santos made a gas discovery in 2012, and depending on what you'd call part of the delta complex (all of the Bengal Fan?), there are others. One field, Sangu, saw several years of production, but seems to be shut-in today. Another, Kutubdia, is awaiting development. It's true though that there have not ...


5

If there were an earthquake that somehow cause a crack in the earth and allowed a significant amount of magma to flow into a very large oil deposit. My understanding from this is that you are making two assumptions, which are not necessarily true: That earthquakes open cracks allowing magma to flow. It may actually the other way around: when magma flows, ...


5

An oil deposit is gravel and rock mixed with oil, capped by rock - like this: My guess is that if somehow, likely from below or sideways, magma would intrude into this deposit, oil (and posibly water) would evaporate. The pressure rises, slowing the magma intrusion. If enough magma and enough heat is provided, the vapor pressure of the oil may be enough to ...


5

Coring is an important method to get detailed information about the formations, however, it's very time-consuming and costive, so it's only applied when geologists and reservoir engineers need high-resolution data. It is more common in ore prospecting and mining, mapping for infrastructure and basic geological understanding of the 3-dimentional structures. ...


5

I suspect that 3.75 million tons of oil is actually tons of oil equivalent (toe). This is a unit of energy rather than mass. The US uses a barrel of oil equivalent (boe) as a measure of energy. The advantage of these energy units is that natural gas, coal, and refined petroleum products can all be measured in terms of tons or barrels of oil equivalent. The ...


5

No. At the moment, we use cracking to turn heavy, long-chain hydrocarbons into more valuable short-chain hydrocarbons, such as petrol/gasoline and kerosene; as a general rule, lighter hydrocarbons are more valuable, at least up to butane. Generally, it might take the form: C$_{16}$H$_{34}$ $\ce{->}$ 2 C$_8$H$_{18}$ (Octane, a typical petrol component) ...


4

Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary is the closest thing to a canonical text, but the Schlumberger glossary is more up to date. Sheriff is a scientific text, whereas the Schlumberger glossary is a little more generally accessible, but neither is comprehensive. Sheriff is especially poor on recent advances. On the plus side, you can edit it, if you're an SEG ...


4

A show is a visual indication of hydrocarbons, in the jargon of petroleum exploration, it is typically used to describe a drilling. It could be e.g. a Gas show in the drilling fluid. Show evaluation is an important tool to understand a reservoir. When hydrocarbons reach the surface naturally, we call it a petrolium seep. Technically, I guess, a seep ...


4

According to 3-D Printing Artificial Reservoir Rocks to Test Their Petrophysical Properties Pore sizes of typical reservoir sandstone range from 0.1 to 100s of microns.


3

Around 80,000 barrels per year? One way to have a rough estimate is to assume that the rate of oil formation has not changed since the Mesozoic. The vast majority of oil reservoirs formed during the last 250 million years. All we need to know is the total oil formed in that period: By 2009 we had consumed CB2009 = 1.0e11 to 1.35e11 oil tonnes. [https://...


3

This question might be better suited for Chemistry or another place, and I'm not certain Earth Science is the place for it. Without being an expert on groundwater, water supplies, or hydrocarbons I would say this. First of all, "deteriorating water pipes" should not lead to any smell. Certain trace metals may be leached from metal (mostly copper) tubing, ...


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