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The transformation of sand into sandstone per se cannot be directly witnessed, as it's happening deep in the earth. However, there are types of cementation that happen quickly and in plain view: A ScienceDirect article on Cementation says: Cementation is the precipitation of a binding material around grains, thereby filling the pores of a sediment. Berner (...


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it was simply an older stone smoothed by water that had fallen into sediment. This is exactly what happened. There's a name for that: a conglomerate.


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The definition I use is class is. A rock is a solid compound composed of one or more mineral or mineraloids. its the broadest but also the easiest definition, there are biotic, abiotic, and human created rocks. To go to chemistry basically any solid is a rock. Sand is a pile of tiny rocks. Some argue that only naturally occurring compounds should count but ...


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It took me a while to get it (and I'm not a geologist or petroleum engineer or anything, just someone who knows basic physics and has been reading a geology textbook), but I think I understand Erik's answer: It's based on buoyancy. Consider a column of permeable rock and soil that has a zone of aeration above a zone of saturation. (I'm gonna talk about water,...


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