# Tag Info

15

The sequence of events you describe has never happened, for several reasons. As Sabre Tooth mentions in the comments, vehicle emissions have a negligible effect on stratospheric ozone. (Note that while vehicle emissions can lead to ozone production at ground level, the ozone layer is several kilometres above the Earth's surface and isn't really affected by ...

15

Not much at first. The damage has already been done. Humanity has added at least 100 gigatonnes of carbon to the atmosphere since the start of the industrial age. Natural sequestration of that excess carbon is a slow process. Suppose all human production of carbon ceases (and note that vehicular production of CO2 is but a fraction of the total). It will take ...

13

There are two factors to be aware of: First, cars (and all road vehicles) account for only a fraction of human CO2 output. Off-hand I've a feeling it is about a quarter or a third although I don't have the exact figure handy. That is, stop all cars, and atmospheric CO2 would continue to rise, albeit it at a lower rate. Second, the atmosphere/ocean ...

12

Normally, temperature broadly decreases with altitude, and convection is effective: locally warmer air will rise, and cooler air will fall. A temperature inversion is where the air temperature rises with altitude. This means that convection is less effective because the air above is already warmer, and so there is less mixing of air between altitudes. Since ...

12

The boom* is a cleanup prototype. From the OceanCleanup website: The Ocean Cleanup deployed a 100 meter-long barrier segment in the North Sea, 23 km off the coast of The Netherlands on the 22nd of June 2016. OBJECTIVE AND SET-UP To investigate the durability of our design, we deployed a system segment in the North Sea. At this test site, ...

11

greenhouse gases other than CO2 The gases N2O and CH4 are relevant greenhouse gases besides CO2. They even have a stronger warming impact per molecule. A brief summary for N2O is provided in its Wikipedia article. Edited later on (thanks to Communisty for the comment): The global warming impact of these greenhouse gases other than CO2 is measured/presented ...

10

The air quality in Los Angeles does not meet federal air quality standards. That being said, the air quality has improved immensely since the 1970s. From the California Air Resource Board, in 1965 the maximum one-hour ozone concentration was 0.58 ppm. Since then, that number has come down to about 0.12 ppm. You can obtain the latest ozone data from EPA....

8

A figure downloaded from this site. It represent the history trends of the pollutants related to the photochemical pollution from 1960s to 2000s We can find that $O_3$, $PAN$, $VOCs$, $NO_x$ have all declined. And O3 variation trends were strongly correlated to $NO_x$ which can be explained by the VOC-NOx chemistry. Another material I have ...

8

The first problem to tackle is "what is an odor"? An odor is a chemical aerosol or gas, which are small molecules suspended in the atmosphere. To track the odors of pizza or burning wood you would first need to identify the molecules associated with the scent. One example is α-pinene, which is the molecule that gives pine trees their scent. Food cooking ...

8

The main driver for anthropogenic climate change is carbon dioxide because it is very long-lived and hence relatively evenly distributed within the atmosphere. And even if you'd somehow manage to keep reduced levels of $\ce{CO2}$ in your country's atmosphere, you'd still be affected by large-scale weather changes. So yes, your country would be affected just ...

7

My guess would be a combination of boundary layer, cloud cover, and emissions (though that isn't terribly specific). Smog is a combination of nitrogen oxides (which cause smog's brown color), ozone, and particulate matter. These in turn form from emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from vehicles and industrial combustion. If those emissions are ...

7

Air is a fluid, as such it tends to mix and concentrations, of anything, tend to disperse into the wider volume. Erik's cup of tea metaphor is pretty accurate, currents of air will pull apart your exemplar 1m3 and disperse the pollutants therein, the heavier particulate, which is mainly soot, water droplets from combustion, and unburned fuel, will full to ...

6

As a USA resident, the EPA is the best place to start when wondering about the emissions inventory of atmospheric pollutants or pollutant precursors that affect the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (e.g. Particulate Matter, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Lead, Nitrogen Oxides, Volatile Organic Compounds). The EPA compiles a comprehensive emissions ...

6

Like many things in Earth Science, the answer is, "It depends." In this case it depends on the composition of the soil and the contaminant you are talking about. Climate, particularly the amount of precipitation, can also have an effect. Septic systems are primarily designed to promote aerobic conditions and aerobic bacteria to degrade organic compounds ...

6

Ofc what casey said is true, but I think the basic physics involved can be understood pretty easily by the mention of the advection-diffusion-equation: $\partial_t c = - \vec v \cdot \vec \nabla c + \mu \Delta c$ This is the easiest model possible for this process, covering transport of the chemical compound with concentration $c(\vec x, t)$ by the wind (...

6

As others have noted, a temperature inversion is a layer where temperature increases with height. This is called an inversion because the normal temperature profile decreases with height. A temperature inversion can trap pollution. Factors that influence this are the environmental temperature profile, the height of the chimneys or smokestacks that expel ...

6

Jan Doggen's answer identifies some sources that tell a bit more about Boomy itself, so I'd like to address overall what a boom actually is in this context, and make an educated guess about the purpose of Boomy. A boom, in this context, is a large floating device intended to surround or block an area of water, keeping surface contaminants either in or out (...

5

The AQI calculation does not require that all pollutants be measured. Instead, it uses the pollutants that are available and then uses a function (chosen by the overarching regulatory agency) that equates health risk categories to the pollutant concentrations. The pollutant with the highest health risk (at present concentrations) will effectively determine ...

5

Are there papers or datasets of average CO2 concentrations down at ground level (say 0-20 metres upwards from the ground), in the spaces between buildings - streets, parks and so on? Yes, THE URBAN CO2 DOME OF PHOENIX, ARIZONA has measurements at a height of 2 meters above ground level, 1.6 km horizontal resolution. CO2 concentrations are 555 ppm near ...

5

If no-one does anything the result will be bad for everyone. If only a small number of countries (or global regions) do something and the rest of the planet does nothing the effect will be minimal or negligible of a global scale. The greater the number of regions doing something useful, the greater the effect and the benefit. For an impact to be made ...

5

Like many of my answers on this Stack Exchange, the answer is yes and no. Part of it depends on the pollutant itself. Let's call the mass by it's technical term, a parcel. There are a couple things that can change the pollution level of the parcel, other than the source (a car in your example): Chemical reactions between the pollutant, the parcel, light, ...

4

Is there a clear guideline as to what exactly constitutes a bad oil spill? No, "bad" has no legal definition in any jurisdiction in North America. As a practical matter you can only establish regulations and enforce legal penalties, regulatory, civil or criminal by some sort of numerical, measurement based criteria. How much oil must be spilled? All ...

3

While @Gordon Stanger gave an overall perspective about pesticides in general in his answer you can deduce some key points about the micrometeorological conditions of the area. Assuming pesticides as relatively large aerosol particles/droplets spayed quite close to ground they are mainly dry deposited to surfaces. If your house is as close to the pesticide ...

3

From the red stain in the water & the rocks in the lower left of the picture it looks like iron ore. Also, the red stain in the water appears to be a colloidal suspension, consistent with minor erosion of a bank rather than an aqueous stain caused by water reacting with sulfide minerals in the bank. The Iron Range occurs in north eastern Minnesota.

3

Regarding linking population density with cases of melanoma, that causal link occurs with all diseases. Cases don't occur where people don't live, they occur where people do live. Consequently, the likelihood of cases occurring increases with population density. UV C radiation is blocked by nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Upper atmospheric ozone acts as a ...

3

I cannot address your specific questions, but with regards to cancer, Cedric Garland has analyzed and presented similar data and attributed a lower incidence of cancer with a higher production of vitamin D at the lower latitudes as a possible reason. Mina Bissel at Berkeley labs and others have discovered that cells in isolation can lead to cancer. The other ...

3

Yes almost definitely. Its not just gas, but additives, lubricants/oils, coatings, coolant (some of which leaks into the combustion chamber) etc. The full list of known carcinogens is available here. Also see the EPA report here which says ... "EPA estimates that mobile (car, truck, and bus) sources of air toxics account for as much as half of all ...

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