31

It is the pressure gradient that is proportional to the local gravitational force. When that force is integrated over a distance, the pressure gradient is integrated to accumulate a total pressure. The maximum occurs at the point towards which gravity is directed in a spherical mass, which is the center. True, gravity at that point is zero, but it and ...


12

There are several reasons. From the theoretical point of view it is beneficial to use isobaric coordinates, due to the vanishing density in the equations of motion. While in cartesian coordinates the wind is determined by the pressure gradient in isobaric coordinates the wind is determined by the geopotential gradient. The geopotential is defined by $\Phi = ...


12

The previous answers do a fine job already. But I'll try to add a simple thought experiment. Imagine three objects floating in space, clumping together by gravity: ### ### #A#|c|#B# ### ### Mass A, the negligible mass c and mass B, equal to A. The center is attracted to A and B and their gravity cancels out. However, A presses against c, because it is ...


9

Pressure at the center of the earth is non-zero. You're correct that there's no gravitational force at the center of the earth, but that doesn't mean pressure is zero - the pressure comes from the many miles of rock sitting above the center of the earth. As an analogy, think of a balloon. The pressure inside is higher than ambient because the elastic skin of ...


4

The question is in regard to pressure confining a rare, deep-mantle formed mineral visible within a diamond inclusion. The pressure on the inclusion within the diamond crystal is really the pressure of confinement within the crystalline lattice of carbon that makes a diamond what it is. Let's digress for a moment. A diamond is a covalent crystal. Each ...


3

I don't want to answer your question explicitly because it will ruin your education. Instead, I will guide you by asking three questions: Where on the Skew-T are you? Where on the Skew-T do you want to go? What type of process do you want to undergo to get there? If it is dry and adiabatic, follow the dry adiabat ($\theta=T\left(\frac{P_0}{P}\right)^{\frac{...


3

Imagine the whole ball being separated into a handful of concentric shells, with the outermost shell being the crust with the surface, and the lower shells ever deeper, hotter, and ghastly regions of the internals of our planet. Now, just for the thought experiment, forget that each individual shell has "stuff" going on in itself, and just imagine ...


3

There are two reasons for this surprising finding: Compaction. Once you have high pressures at depth, the less dense material goes up. Take a bucket of water, put sand in it, and squeeze the sand really hard. Water goes up. Then, you'd expect no water at depth of several kilometres. Even if you somehow had free water at these depths, the expectation is that ...


2

The mediterranian do in a way create its own climate and is partly protected from the north saharan desert by the dominating wind direction in the area. The dominating wind direction is from west and northwest,The wind blows into the saharan desert in the direction of the equator in the winter,This creates the mild winters the mediterranian is known for. ...


2

This question might be more appropriate for the SE Engineering site. The thing about soils is that they vary from place to place. Some are sandy, some contain more clay than others and the thicknesses of layers is also variable. All this influences how different soils react to surface loading stresses, such as from building foundations/footings. ...


2

There is no such thing as the 'Holmes' equation. Comment: Holmes is the person that formulated this equation I has every right to name it as I please. Could someone please validate the Holmes equation There is no such thing as the 'Holmes' equation. To the ideal gas law $$T=\frac{P\mu}{R\rho}$$ if P, ρ and μ are known in order to 'predict' a temperature ...


2

Nothing really prevents water from existing deep inside Earth. We have direct evidence that it does, even in the mantle. Evidence for such water may be found in Ice VII inclusions in diamonds[1]. Because of their great mechanical strength, diamonds formed in the mantle retain GPa-level pressure within their lattice, so when they come to the surface and ...


1

Or if the math of the other answers is a bit complex, in a broad sense, the balancing relationship is: $$\frac{\mathrm{density} \cdot \mathrm{temperature}}{\mathrm{pressure}} = \mathrm{constant}$$ For compression, that's pretty straightforward: higher pressure forces higher density and temperature. In the atmosphere, that balance still endures. But there ...


1

Drilling mud is only used when drilling for fluids that are pressurized such as oil, gas and sometimes water. It is not used when drilling for minerals such as gold, iron ore, copper. Exploratory drilling minerals will use a combination of: Rotary air blast drilling (RAB) - where compressed air is forced through the drill steel to flush drill cutting out of ...


1

Wow, @John came with a simple answer. Our goal is to find $$\frac{dT}{dP}=\frac{dT}{dz}\cdot\frac{dz}{dP}$$ By the equation for pressure lapse: $$P=P_0\cdot e^{-\frac{z}{H}}$$ where $H=8 km=8000 m$ (scale height) and $z$ is the height above the surface. We differentiate it once, to get: $$\frac{dP}{dz}=\frac{P_0}{H}e^{-\frac{z}{H}}$$ The inverse value is $$\...


1

Your logic is wrong. Do not think of the atmosphere as a closed system. Your analogy of heating a bottle is not appropriate. In uncomplicated terms, the Sun heats the ground, the ground radiates thermal energy heating the air just above the ground and the heated air rises. In rising, the air heated has less density than the surrounding air. By rising it ...


1

The following paragraphs are reproduced from https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/core/ "Growth in the Inner Core As the entire Earth slowly cools, the inner core grows by about a millimeter every year. The inner core grows as bits of the liquid outer core solidify or crystallize. Another word for this is “freezing,” although it’s important ...


1

Predictability of weather and climate is currently an active and lively research topic. I will try to giove some (very) brief information on how it is normally done. The best idea would be to use a weather (atmospheric) model, which is a numerical model that solves the Navier-Stokes Equations to bring prognostic information of the atmospheric state, for ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible