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The returned energy which is measured by the radar is given by the so-called "radar equation" which states that: $P_r=\frac{CK_w^2}{r^2}\sum_{i=1}^Nn_iD_i^6$ Here $C$ is "just" some antenna characteristics and $r$ is the distance from the radar. $K_w$ is the dielectric constant, which differs for rain and snow. For rain it is ...


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If they propagate outward from thunderstorms, they are outflow boundaries. Cold air flows down from the thunderstorm with precipitation and spreads outward upon hitting the ground. This air moves ahead of the storm and forces warmer air upward, suspending clouds and other particles. That's what is visible on radar. More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...


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In the case of a ground looking radar, the cross-polarized signals HV and VH generally increase with surface roughness. For example, dense vegetation is one of the more depolarizing surface types because the polarization orientation of the emitted beam is scrambled over the course of multiple scattering interactions within the canopy before returning to the ...


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I found the picture with a small write up on a JPL site. It's a picture of the Aine Corona with pancake domes. P-38340 MGN-48 5/21/91 This Magellan radar image shows a region approximately 300 kilometers (180 miles) across, centered on 59 degrees south latitude, 164 degrees east longitude and located in a vast plain to the south of Aphrodite ...


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