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"Rare earth" metals consist of Scandium, Yttrium, and 15 other metals of the so-called "Lanthanide" series toward the bottom of the Periodic Table of elements. Basically, these are the chemicals that we didn't study in chemistry class at school. Like other metals, they have two electrons in the outer shell, but unlike "metallic" chemicals such as sodium or ...


8

Most notably, a moving Lithosphere. Shaving off the surface 20km (Lithosphere is~120km) would not stop plate tectonics. What makes Earth's surface so different is that it has a constant cycling of lithosphere; Dead planets are forced to keep surface scars caused by major impacts and weathering. To this date, we have not found another example of plate ...


8

What are the rare earths? The rare earths are a group of several elements. The widest definition includes the 15 lanthanides: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu, and two more elements: Sc and Y. A quick look at the periodic table gives a hint as to why Sc and Y are also considered as REE: (modified from this) I've marked all the ...


7

The simple answer is no. There are not any significant rare earth elements (REE) deposits in Iceland. This question: What are rare earths and why do they cluster near alkaline magmatism? gives a list of possible formation mechanisms. Basically, to form a magmatic deposit of rare earth elements, simple magmatic activity is not enough. It would have to be ...


4

In the early stages of crystallization, the ions that form high-temperature minerals are depleted from the melt. Rare ions that do not participate in the crystallization of common rock-forming minerals become concentrated in the melt and in the excluded water. These ions can form the rare minerals that are often found in pegmatites... rare elements ...


2

The answer to your question is probably the second: Or do REEs only modify the color of their fluorescence, but not necessarily cause it? I will give an example of apatite. Here's a cathodoluminescence (luminescence excited by electrons) energy spectrum of a natural apatite. Source. You can see several different rare earths triggering the luminescence, ...


2

Yes, definitely. In general, REE minerals tend to be fluorescent. In our lab we deal a lot with REE and we have a UV lamp just for fun, to see the colours. Other minerals that are commonly associated with REE deposits are also fluorescent, with the best example being calcite, fluorite, and apatite. The fluorescent properties of REE-bearing solid state ...


2

I think the answer to your question have to be no. Lots of minerals are fluorescent in UV light,You can take a look here https://geology.com/articles/fluorescent-minerals/ So as you can see in the linked summary of fluorescent minerals it can be hard to tell what you have found unless you know what to look for. A better way to find Rare Earth Elements ...


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