20

I can't provide numbers, but a hopefully reasonable outline for your own calculations: All that is required for oil to form is a source-rock brought to the right depths in a sedimentary basin and the oil migrating into a host-rock. If it is economically profitable (See Footnote) it goes into the global reserve calculation. (Petroleum Sedimentology Winfried ...


16

Caesium-137 is not used in the fracking process. Caesium-137 is used as a source of gamma-rays in some logging tools, most notably the density tool (one example), and some other instruments such as flowmeters. This is what the story you linked to is about. Logging tools are used after drilling to measure the properties of the rocks in the borehole, and ...


12

Soil is an interesting case because although it is non-renewable (at any useful rate) as a 'bulk material' once removed from the ground, the nutrient content of soil can be renewed with fertilizers. What a soil-scientist would understand as 'soil' is ultimately produced from the physical and chemical breakdown of solid bedrock at the base of the soil ...


11

According to wikipedia, there are around 5.5 million tonnes of uranium in ore deposits that are commercially viable at current prices, and perhaps 35 million tonnes that are potentially viable if prices increase. Also according to wikipedia, the Earth's crust (to 25 km depth) contains an estimated 10^14 tonnes (100 trillion tonnes), while the oceans may ...


10

According to this University of Wisconsin reference http://whyfiles.org/100oil/2a.html 12.5% of oil and gas is from organisms that lived 5 to 34 million years ago. So if we take an estimate for the total oil in place before human extraction of 4 trillion barrels, this would be 500 billon barrels. So a crude estimate might be 500 billion barrels per 30 ...


8

I normally use Google Scholar, but Elsevier also has the non-public Scopus (which means I have to use a campus proxy). Also CiteSeerX but the semantic side is not as rich.


7

There are two universally loved geophysics texts : Turcotte and Shubert and Stein and Wyessesion. Both are upper division/lower graduate level texts. Fowler is great if you do not have a strong mathematical background (multivariate calculus). Beyond that, it might be difficult to get a a good understanding without an Introductory physics course, and a few ...


7

The simple answer is no. There are not any significant rare earth elements (REE) deposits in Iceland. This question: What are rare earths and why do they cluster near alkaline magmatism? gives a list of possible formation mechanisms. Basically, to form a magmatic deposit of rare earth elements, simple magmatic activity is not enough. It would have to be ...


7

The Elsevier service Geofacets "is designed to search for, and extract, maps, sections and other geographically-referenced geoscientific data from a very large and growing volume of published content", and as such is perhaps relevant -- though it focusses on georeferenced data rather than on scientific articles.


7

The Australian and Belgian Antarctic research stations use local resources for their respective water supplies. Australia operates a number of stations. In the past, snow was melted but currently local melt water is processed and used. However, the Australian base, Casey, also melts ice and the Mawson base also melts snow. Getting freshwater in ...


5

No. At the moment, we use cracking to turn heavy, long-chain hydrocarbons into more valuable short-chain hydrocarbons, such as petrol/gasoline and kerosene; as a general rule, lighter hydrocarbons are more valuable, at least up to butane. Generally, it might take the form: C$_{16}$H$_{34}$ $\ce{->}$ 2 C$_8$H$_{18}$ (Octane, a typical petrol component) ...


5

It sounds like you are asking about plants taking up carbon at different stages of Ecological Succession that occur after some catastrophic event (e.g. a wildfire or lava flow). If the prior ecosystem was dominated by live vegetation such that the detritus emitting $\ce{CO_2}$ was much less than the $\ce{CO_2}$ uptake by plants, then a catastrophe will ...


5

The question "how much" is a little unprecise for geochemical questions. Rather you should think about: -How much of the element is there per Rock-Volume (=Concentration)? The crust has a higher U-concentration than the mantle because U is drawn into the minerals that compose the crust. Or you could also say that the minerals that compose the mantle don't ...


5

I also strongly suggest the courses available on the coursera platform under the category "Energy & Earth Sciences" here.


4

Geophysics has many flavors to it. Prof Claerbout's site has a lot of free stuff which are a good introduction to one part of it. http://sepwww.stanford.edu/sep/prof/


4

Your idea has merit. Shale is classified by geologists as being a mudstone. It is composed of silt and clay sized minerals. According to this geology website, shales can be crushed to produce a clay and then mixed with water. These days, items that were once made from natural clay, such as terracotta pots and tiles for roofs, are now made from crushed shale....


3

About 12 million BTU, or 3.5 MWh. I searched for paper btu and got loads... of... hits. Seems like 7000 BTU/lb is a decent starting point, or $1.6 \times 10^7\ \mathrm{J/kg}$. If we say a ream of letter-size paper weighs about 5 lb, then we can calculate that paper yields about $1.2 \times 10^{10}\ \mathrm{J/m^3}$ when burned — enough to heat the average ...


3

Adding to Fred's answer, there are two points you have to take into consideration: Whether the "shale" is actually composed of clay minerals, or is it something else. You said it's what they took out from a coal mine, so it's probably crushed and milled. Assuming it is clay, there are some problems with that. As Fred said, clays expand and contract with ...


3

Around 80,000 barrels per year? One way to have a rough estimate is to assume that the rate of oil formation has not changed since the Mesozoic. The vast majority of oil reservoirs formed during the last 250 million years. All we need to know is the total oil formed in that period: By 2009 we had consumed CB2009 = 1.0e11 to 1.35e11 oil tonnes. [https://...


3

There has only been one chromium mine in Australia - the Coobina mine, in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. It is located 80 km south east Newman (23 deg 29' 31" south, 120 deg 16' 32" east). The resource at Coobina is 1.5 Mt @ 29.4% Cr. The ore deposit was discovered in 1924 and was once worked under the names of Jimblebah and Murramunda. It was ...


1

lets say a water company do deliver water to a city but as the city expands the water source are no longer able to keep up with the demand so the water company have to drill a new well,This is now an alternative source for water the company will still use the primary source for water but will need to use the secondary source in periods of high water demand. ...


1

There may be a language issue with this question or you are asking about something in a confusing way. By asking about kerosene "wearing out" do you mean wearing out like erosion & becoming thinner - which only happens to solid items not liquids. Or, are you asking about will kerosene be fully depleted before oil is fully depleted - fully depleted ...


1

There are estimates produced my the major coal, gas and oil producing nations, but there are large error bars for some of them. Wikipedia has oil, gas and coal split down by country - well worth a read of this or the CIA World Factbook, especially on the description of the various categories of oil reserves (Proven and Unproven and the various estimation ...


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