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80

The water in any river draining the sea is infinitely recycle-able (from rain replenishment), whereas the salt from any terrestrial source is not. So salty rivers, if any, won't exist permanently. Saltwater lakes gain their salinity precisely because they have no outlet, so salt just gets concentrated by evaporation. I don't think there are any truly saline ...


31

The already accepted answer is already covering the "real" answer as far as I'm concerned, and while you won't find many (any?) saline rivers in the traditional sense, we do have underwater "rivers" that kiiiiind of but not quite fit the bill. They're not saline rivers as I expect you envision, but I figure they could be an interesting "by the way though" ...


27

In the case of Río de la Plata, part of it is history and politics, and part of it is oceanography. Most of Argentina and Uruguay considers Río de la Plata as a river (thus, the name, río) and as such it is the widest river in the world (maximum width >200km). Río de la Plata is formed as the confluence of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers and results in a ...


25

The Pecos River in Texas, USA may arguably fit the description of a "saltwater river". A point of argument is what is considered to be "saltwater". For comparison, here are some bodies of water and their salinity. 35,000 ppm Pacific and Atlantic Ocean 13,000-23,000 ppm Black Sea 12,500 ppm Caspian Sea 10,000 ppm Baltic Sea Note though, that salinity ...


25

From an Earth Science standpoint, it's meaningless to ask about the "source" of a river in this way. The "source" of a river is the rainfall within its drainage basin, which percolates down into groundwater, and the "river" appears where the land has eroded down below the water table. The Amazon has an enormous drainage basin: and every point in it is ...


24

I am interpreting your question as referring to rivers with flowing water freezing as as opposed to glaciers, which are already frozen. Under current climatic conditions, small rivers can freeze throughout: from bank to bank, surface to river bed. I'm avoiding using the word solid as some people use that word when a river's surface has frozen from bank to ...


22

Water from the Caspian sea, with a salinity of 1.2%, is constantly flowing into Garabogazköl, where the water eventually evaporates and leaves the salt behind. Of course, the situation is not indefinitely stable, as the depression is eventually going to be filled with salt. But at the time writing, water is still flowing like a river through the very narrow ...


17

The river isn't splitting. The picture shows a number of dendritic drainage channels flowing into a larger river/stream. They are the most common form of topographical draining system. They develop in gently sloping topography and they ... develops in regions underlain by homogeneous material. That is, the subsurface geology has a similar resistance to ...


17

Here in New York City we have a salt "river". It is called the "East River" and it separates part of Long Island (Brooklyn and Queens) from the island of Manhattan and the mainland (The Bronx). Indeed it looks a lot like a salt river: From a hydrology perspective it is not a river tho, it is actually a saltwater estuary.


14

Well, I can only agree that it is indeed amazing and it doesn't get less amazing when some geology, hydrology and geomorphology is added to the the amazement. All precipitation that falls on land must flow back to the oceans somehow, and unless it evaporates it will flow in rivers or as groundwater towards a lower hydrostatic level. Water can not flow ...


14

tl;dr: no. Long answer: First of all, like mentioned by others in the comments, you would need some physical mechanism to take a whole lot of water, evaporate it, and drop it at once at a place where the Grand Canyon is now. This is not something that's going to happen because of physics. If there was some extraordinary event which could have caused this, ...


13

I'm under the impression you're not asking why a meandering river will keep meandering, but why even a straight river will start to meander in the first place. The first is indeed by erosion of the outside of the bends, and deposition on the inside of the bend, which is fairly easy to understand. On the origin of meanders, this is a more complicated matter. ...


13

Meanders amplify themselves--the stream tends to erode on the outside of the meander (forming a cut bank) and deposit sediment on the inside (forming a point bar). Eventually, the meander will propagate so far from the stream's mean path that the stream cuts across it. Eventually, the old meander will turn into an oxbow lake and fill in. As to why it ...


12

I live near a river named Salz, flowing both warm and salty on the north slope of the Pyrenees south of Carcassonne. In historical times it was boiled dry for salt. See Les Sources de Salz


11

There are two features that need to be distinguish here: one is the Hudson Submarine Canyon on the continental slope, which starts at around 100 m and connects to the deep basin; and the Hudson Shelf Valley on the continental shelf, which is much shallower (20-100m). Assuming the question is about the Shelf Valley, Butman et al. (2003) provided a thorough ...


11

This is a kind of chicken or egg question, since there was never really a point at which there was no river flowing, or no hills to flow around. My question is whether the hills preexisted the course of the river or did the river in some way cause the hills to "appear". Most of the area which you describe along the Mississippi is formed of sand, gravel ...


11

There are salt water rivers in different places of the world where ground water flows in contact with salt layers. There is a river in Catalonia named Ribera Salada (meaning salty river in Catalan). My translation from Catalan Wikipedia: It gets its name because one of its originating currents - Fred river - comes from sources in Triassic lands with a ...


11

I guess there are multiple names, but I know it as the river's "long profile", and it is used in academic papers (one example here and a search in google scholar here). But you can find similar diagrams under names like the river's height profile, longitudinal profile, longitudinal map or geographic profile. These last two are the ones used in an Australian ...


10

In a way, glaciers are just like frozen rivers. A good start on that topic comes from USGS. Ice (whether in a frozen river or in a glacier) is still a fluid and thus is always moving because of its own weight. A frozen river will still be a river of incredibly slow moving water. When water is not moving, first the entire volume cools down to 4C (maximum ...


10

I will attempt at rephrasing your interesting question after these considerations: At the continental scale, flowing water has no significant inertia, so water flows following the maximum slope. A river is just a path along the continent that follows the maximum local slope at any of the places it passes through. What amazes you (let me interpret) is that ...


10

Water in liquid state always takes the fastest route to lower altitude. All rainwater would flow vertically down to the groundwater surface if not the permeability was limited by the material properties. The permeability controls how fast water infiltrate and penetrate the material. For example, can surface runoff water flow on top of a hard road coating, ...


10

When the flow of water in a river accelerates, it can pick up more sediment from the river bed and transport it downstream. Alternatively, when the flow slows down, the transport capacity drops and the sediments suspended are deposited on the river bed. When a river goes into a lake, it transitions from the fast-flowing regime in the river to a very slow ...


10

Is this possible? Definitely. I know you can get sparks from some rocks and minerals - but granite boulders [?] Yep. Quartz is one of those minerals that "sparks". It is piezoelectric, and triboluminescent. Here's a wonderful video of this phenomenon: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File%3ATribo.ogv Granite is a rock which has plenty ...


9

To answer this question, I'll back up a bit and first talk about what happens to rain as it flow to streams then about what happens when streams dry up. When it rains, some of the rain hits the ground or trees/plants and is evaporated before it flows away from where it hits and before it sinks into the soil very far. Some enters the soil but is taken up by ...


9

This is a question of topology. There are three major attempts to order streams from small to larger. The first was established by Horton (1941) who established the concept of drainage composition. To establish the relative importance of streams in a network Horton suggested to investigate each junction and to set the stream that entered the junction at ...


9

I'm gonna hazard a guess here: They can't. While I don't have any evidence for this claim, it seems likely that there are too many small-scale non-linear processes feeding in to the overall generation process to ever be able to sensibly derive any kind of analytical solution based on physical first-principles. I think that's what you're asking. So, ...


9

There is an area with several salt rivers and wide salt streams that exists in Russia - it's in Yakutia (Sakha Republic), part of Siberia. Water of Solyanka River (flowing in to the great Lena River) contains 21 g of salt per liter, some neighboring streams can contain up to 70 g of salt per liter of their water... According to science, millions ...


9

Here in Western Australia we have many salt water streams running through farmland affected by dry land salinity. It's a huge problem where land cleared for agriculture has experienced rising water tables effectively bringing salt to the surface. This salt is washed into the creeks by rain and these streams are essentially salt saturated - far saltier than ...


8

There is no direct answer. One way to think about this is to consider the water cycle. Water evaporates from the oceans and is precipitates over land. Distance from the ocean affects the amount of precipitation so at the center of a large contintent you may have less precipitation than over a smaller one. Mountains also drain moisture out of the air as it is ...


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