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The rivers transport most of the sediments to the coastal or marine basins where they accumulate. An exception are lacustrine basins, but most of world rivers sediments are deposited on shallow or deep marine basins. When the stack of sediments is large, listric faults develop, and the bottom layer get pushed down into the earth. This process is called ...


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There are three possible sources for the reported limestone nodules from the clay horizon from colluvium and alluvium. First, as noted before, they could be either detrital gravel of limestone either eroded from limestone bedrock. Given that the bedrock source from which this gravel was eroded and transported from could be either local or regional, such ...


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This question might be more appropriate for the SE Engineering site. The thing about soils is that they vary from place to place. Some are sandy, some contain more clay than others and the thicknesses of layers is also variable. All this influences how different soils react to surface loading stresses, such as from building foundations/footings. ...


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Shell stable isotopes, for oxygen and carbon reveals, if the gastropoda had lived in brackish, lacustrine or palustrine environment. For discussion please see paper below. Latal, C., Piller, W. E., & Harzhauser, M. (2004). Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions by stable isotopes of Middle Miocene gastropods of the Central Paratethys. Palaeogeography, ...


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No, sediments do not sink into the earth because they are too light. They stay on the surface and over very long times they form the continents. But they can get buried under many km of other sediments as parts of the crust they're on subsides or is pushed over other parts. Thus they can get into pressure/temperatue conditions where diagenesis (see other ...


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The oldest ocean floor in the ocean is no more than 200 million years old. Ocean floor sometimes subducts into the Earth but other times gets lifted to eventually become solid land. Whale fossils have been found in the Andes, deep sea creature fossils in the Alps, and perhaps most famously, bizarre sea life fossils from the mid-Cambrian in the Burgess Shale ...


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The oldest in situ marine sediments recovered by IODP (International Ocean Drilling Program; formerly ODP and DSDP) was (from memory) Late Triassic (so ca. 200 to 230 Ma) and it is as old as in situ marine sediments go, since indeed, as the marine crust gets older, it gets denser and thus is more prone to be subducted. However we do have older marine ...


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Fossil preservation in lacustrine marls is fairly common so it is really not that indicative of anything. Species might be used for wider correlation, but that's about it.


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There are two ways in which waves can sort particles on a beach, and both depend on surface area to weight ratio. The larger, toe-sized particles you describe have less surface area to volume (weight) ratio than the sand-sized particles, so were first to drop out of the water flow. The lighter particles had more surface area per unit of weight for the waves ...


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Because there are only three types of rock; namely sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic, all rock materials we observe must fall into one of these categories. For example, when a planet is forming, the process by which dust accumulates through gravitational accretion must be considered sedimentary. Eventually, this material will be compressed and may become ...


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