9

I am afraid that you aren't being specific enough to really answer your question: What about mountain chians valleys and hills are you interested in? There are simple and complex models dating back from the 1960s to present. Are you interested in learning about the material properties of the crust, or just topography in general? What about weathering effects?...


7

Over longer time scales (hundred thousands to millions of years) deformation of crust can be simulated as a viscous fluid. Basically this amounts to simulating stokes flow (i.e., the math behind the problem). Thin viscous sheet models are also fairly common. Over shorter time periods (months to thousands of years) viscoelastic models are more appropriate. ...


6

Any numerical model solution is inherently constrained by the equations being solved. You are probably aware that the inverse turbulence energy cascade exists in predominantly 2D flows. In oceans and atmospheres, this happens at approximate scale of Rossby radius of deformation and larger. Whether or not a numerical model is able to represent a physical ...


4

You’re right that there were no future natural forcings experiments defined in the CMIP5 protocol. The reason being simply that the modeling groups thought that other experiments were more deserving of their limited computing time. Compare this with the much stronger call for the historicalNat and historicalGHG experiments, which were required for ...


3

There are several codes which can probably model what you seem to describe. A few that come to mind (in no particular order) are Underworld, Elefant (C Thieulot) and Elvis (T Gerya). The choice really depends on the exact model you would like to run. For a discussion paper describing Elefant: http://www.solid-earth-discuss.net/6/1949/2014/sed-6-1949-2014....


3

Here's one idea to account for meteorological extremes in our climate models, though I'm not sure if it answers your question and am less certain if it qualifies as reliable (open for feedback on that too): Take a regional climate model which has simulated into the past and the future. We also have a few decades of observed data to compare the same time ...


2

The problem with a statistical model is the reliance on dynamical model input, plus the requirement of climatology. A statistical model will also only give data for a solitary point, not an area. The simplest statistical model is persistence, which is the current weather, followed by climatology. Both are the lowest in forecast skill. For a dynamic model, ...


2

You will want to look at the GPlates program and its references to where it gets its data from. It is probably the most widely used repository to show plate motion information for the current time as well as far into the past. As far as the "...relative to the African plate" part is concerned: If you are sitting somewhere on the moon, and look for long ...


2

Check out the USGS seismic data maps for each area of interest. For example, http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/samoa09/ gives you the relative speed and direction of the Pacific Plate relative to the Fiji-Tonga-Australian plate. The directional arrow on Figure 2 gives the mean relative motion in mm/year.


1

Unfortunately, I don't think such a numerical model exists that would be suitable for high school students' understanding. The simplest climate model around is a zero-dimensional (energy balance) climate model, but a background on mathematics, and programming may be necessary. You can find one here. Wikipedia has one listed. Michael Mann has the source code ...


1

This presentation mentions "Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs)", and specifically mentions a number of AMVs, which separately cover the globe (GOES AMVs ±60N, plus polar AMVs from MODIS/AVHRR/VIIRS, and a combined product from UW CIMSS) but says that are all only 3 layers. That presentation is talking about producing a more global, higher resolution product, ...


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