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What caused a centuries long freeze, the beginning of the current ice age. Yes we are in an ice age, as long as greenland and antarctica have large ice sheets we are technically in an ice age) Which in turn was caused by the movement of continents close enough to the poles to create permanent ice caps. the freezing of organic matter into permafrost is not a ...


Vegetation in Arctic and sub-Arctic bogs is not necessarily rotting. After a while the vegetation in a bog creates an acidic environment that preserves plant material and animal remains as though they were pickled in vinegar. That is why in Britain and Ireland there are extensive peat bogs many thousands of years old, and coal deposits which began in a ...


The answer is Nitrogen. Pay attention that nitrogen must be mineralized before it is available for plants:

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