Skip to main content
79 votes

Why do climate experts from the UN/IPCC rarely mention Grand Solar Minimum?

The IPCC do mentions solar minimums and maximums, as part of extremely careful treatment they do of the reconstructions and predictions for the changes in solar irradiance. The Assessment Report 5, ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
40 votes

Why do climate experts from the UN/IPCC rarely mention Grand Solar Minimum?

I think the main question has already been answered. But I would like to add to the fallacy that: History shows solar activity is the main driver of our climate, among other factors. The Sun is ...
Max M.'s user avatar
  • 401
21 votes

Is there any correlation between Grand Solar Minimums (GSM) and earthquakes?

The main proxy that we have of past solar intensity comes from its proven correlation to the number of sunspots, which have been recorded since the invention of the telescope in the early 1600's. And ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
15 votes
Accepted

Is Earth getting heavier or lighter?

tl;dr: The Earth receives 40,000 tons of dust from space every year, but looses 95,000 tons of Hydrogen and 1,600 tons of Helium every year as well. After all additional effects are balanced, the ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,092
13 votes
Accepted

Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?

Total solar eclipses are rare. Globally, they only happen every 18 months. In any given spot, they are much, much rarer, with a recurrence period of many hundreds of years. Solar eclipses are ...
gerrit's user avatar
  • 11.7k
11 votes
Accepted

What are the sunniest places on Earth? (including oceans)

It is an interesting question, and despite that latitude is the main control of the amount of solar radiation that reaches the top of the atmosphere at a given location, the answer will be determined ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
10 votes
Accepted

Changes in Earth's orbital and rotation speeds

The Earth moves faster around the Sun when it is near its perihelion (the closest point of its orbit to the Sun). And it moves slower when it is further away (aphelion), just as Kepler realized quite ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
10 votes
Accepted

Does a geomagnetic storm visibly deflect a compass?

You can definitely see a large geomagnetic storm with a compass, if you have the timing to catch one and the patience to sit and stare for a few minutes. If you look at these minutely measurements ...
WJB's user avatar
  • 976
7 votes
Accepted

Calculate the maximum power angle of a solar panel (photovoltaics)

This question can be answered in many different ways that take into account, or ignore, the many factors that affect the total output of a fix solar panel over a year. In general, all answers will ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
7 votes
Accepted

Does the Earth 'Flare' like the Sun does?

The medium for a solar flare is plasma, so nothing like that occurs in the Earth's core. The outer core fluid is highly conductive and has a low viscosity, so changes may occur in the core's field, ...
A. Newell's user avatar
  • 288
7 votes

Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?

Doesn't look like the ECMWF does. Perhaps part of it has to do with the fact the weather changes due to eclipses are usually fairly friendly/tame. This GOES 16 satellite loop from the southeast US ...
JeopardyTempest's user avatar
7 votes

Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?

In addition to the rarity, there is also the problem of additional computations. To find out if there is a solar eclipse, you need extra calculations. Since the introduction of additional calculations ...
BarocliniCplusplus's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Where is the Arctic Circle for civil and astronomical twilight?

As mentioned by Barry in the comments, you just have to substract 6 degrees of latitude to get the ring around areas were it never gets DARKER than civil twilight or darker for 24 or more hours (or 12°...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
5 votes
Accepted

How can we calculate the temperature of the atmosphere, including the greenhouse effect?

One can account for greenhouse gas effect for Earth's temperature in simple energy balance model in following manner. Assume that fraction $f$ of longwave radiation emitted by Earth's surface is ...
Harish's user avatar
  • 797
5 votes
Accepted

Could we cool the ocean by reflecting away sunlight to influence hurricanes?

Water has a large thermal capacity. which is why the temperature change between seasons is gradual rather than sudden, especially near the oceans. For water to lose heat time is required. By ...
Fred's user avatar
  • 24.7k
5 votes

What would a graph of magnitude >7.5 earthquakes over last 400 years compared to Grand Solar Minimums look like?

As others have pointed already in the comments, there is no earthquake data extending that far back. But we do have data for the last century. In a similar way to my answer to this question. Here I've ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
5 votes

Effective Temperature of a Planet and Surface Temperature due to Greenhouse Effect

I think you’re not far off with your understanding, but maybe I can put in a few comments to make things clearer. I often get confused because most diagrams for the Earth energy budget and net ...
Deditos's user avatar
  • 3,950
5 votes

Solar irradiance/radiation difference

Technically (at least in solar energy industry): Irradiance is the instant power of solar radiation per unit area, it is measured in W/m2 (it is instantaneous, therefore no time dimension in the ...
jurajb's user avatar
  • 171
4 votes
Accepted

Solar irradiance/radiation difference

Solar irradiation is a measure of the energy delivered by the sun per unit area, watts or joules per square metre for example.. It is often recorded over a specific time period, so it is very much to ...
Michael Walsby's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Is there an atmospheric hydrogen cycle?

"Is there any interaction between the Earth's atmosphere and high velocity protons in the solar wind (e.g. protons combining with atmospheric oxygen to form hydroxide) which is capable of balancing ...
Keith McClary's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Term for the thing that shines radiation onto a black body

The Sun is also regarded as a black body. Any body that radiates energy following Planck's law of black-body radiation, and absorbes energy at all wavelengths can be considered as a black body. This ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
4 votes

What are the sunniest places on Earth? (including oceans)

1) No, there are many places in the ocean that receive more sunlight hours than many deserts. For instance, the west coasts of southern Africa and central South America. These locations are ...
DavidH's user avatar
  • 348
4 votes
Accepted

Would a global cooling event disable solar energy usage?

I am not sure about the size of Krakatoa eruption but the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in Indonesia around 12th June 1991 is considered as the largest eruption in the past 100 years. Global average of ...
Harish's user avatar
  • 797
4 votes
Accepted

Convert satellite image data (GOES 15) into solar irradiance values?

It is far too complex a process to estimate surface irradiances utilising satellite data. No software takes just satellite images as input and gives out irradiances. I am pasting link to an article ...
Harish's user avatar
  • 797
4 votes

How much would 5 gigatons of methane warm the atmosphere compared to 5 gigatons of CO2 if both were released in one go?

In theory, the methane emissions would warm the earth about 25 times more than the carbon dioxide emissions. That's because of something called the global warming potential. The global warming ...
Ajani Stella's user avatar
3 votes

Does the Earth receive a net charge from the aurorae?

No. If that were the case, the Sun would eventually develop a net charge. Let's imagine that's the case and the Sun develops a net positive charge. That charge would eventually stop negative ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
3 votes
Accepted

What would the average temperature be if there were no greenhouse effect from water vapor?

As was pointed out in the question comments, there is no way to know what Earth's average temperature would do without water vapor in the atmosphere. However, we can estimate the effects of the water,...
Craeft's user avatar
  • 220
3 votes

Now Mars is pulsing 3 times per night in the UV, can anyone explain these waves in simple terms? Do these waves have analogies on Earth?

The Martian nightglow comes from molecules in the atmosphere that react with solar radiation, carry it over to the night side, and give off the energy they gained as ultraviolet light as they free-...
Oscar Lanzi's user avatar
  • 3,926
2 votes

Calculating a cloud cover index based on comparison of horizontal and tilted irradiance from pyranometers

Not being an expert in the subject, I agree with your hypothesis. But, I think that what you are measuring with the difference in the readings is the anisotropy of the illumination. In very cloudy ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible