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14 votes

Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

The first part of the association is that increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause rising temperatures on earth. Here is some information on why that is so, if you are ...
kingledion's user avatar
  • 3,376
8 votes
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What are good metrics to compare climates?

The Köppen climate classification is a classic metric to classify climates: Source: Wikimedia Commons It classifies climates based on the number of months with temperature below and/or above certain ...
gerrit's user avatar
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6 votes

Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

It's a harder direct relation to show that it appears. On the surface, warmer = less ice, file under "duh", but while it probably is that simple, showing a causal relation is a more difficult. The ...
userLTK's user avatar
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5 votes
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How to determine constant $C$ in $p(x) = Cx^{-D}$?

There are two solutions using the least square method for calculating $C$ and $D$. Both methods yield different results for your constants. There is no correct method. Method of least Squares We ...
daniel.heydebreck's user avatar
5 votes
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Correlation and causation

Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a recently developed tool to answer the question you've asked. It's based on tools developed in nonlinear time series analysis and dynamical systems theory. It allows ...
Z W's user avatar
  • 432
5 votes

Probability ( weather tomorrow = weather today)?

As mentioned, the term you are looking for is persistence. Generally its strength varies wildly depending on what variable you are looking at, the location, and by whether you also further select ...
JeopardyTempest's user avatar
5 votes

Spatial Continuity in python

Your last question was easy to answer, this one is more difficult. You could look at correlation and dependence, but you'd be better off looking at variography. That's the easier part of this question ...
Fred's user avatar
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4 votes

Correlation and causation

I can give some examples from atmospheric science: Wind and temperature in the vertical direction: as you increase in height, the temperature decreases due to the conservation of geopotential energy. ...
BarocliniCplusplus's user avatar
3 votes

Correlation and causation

As an alternative to Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM), the recent Tigramite is a fast python library for causal discovery that promises to ... ... outperforms current approaches in detection power ...
Delforge's user avatar
  • 238
3 votes

What are the technical solutions to measure $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

In addition to satellite measurements of carbon dioxide, there are numerous ground based stations that also measure carbon dioxide: Italy, Hawaii, Australia, just to name a few. If you want to catch ...
Fred's user avatar
  • 24.7k
3 votes

Probability ( weather tomorrow = weather today)?

Pearson publish a data set for A-level students (high school) that includes weather data from various locations. While the data set is (deliberately) flawed [one task for students is to identify flaws ...
James K's user avatar
  • 797
3 votes
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Prevailing Winds: Is the speed relevant?

Part of the complication goes to two separate definitions for the word: prevailing: To be frequent (Miriam-Webster) The most frequent, the most occurring wind direction in your example, even if ...
JeopardyTempest's user avatar
3 votes
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How to know to which PC (Principal Component) a sample belongs in EOF/PCA

I recommend you read Monahan et al. (1990) for a thorough explanation of Empirical Orthogonal Functions. I suggest you pay attention to the way the principal components are extracted. Ultimately, ...
arkaia's user avatar
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3 votes

How to determine constant $C$ in $p(x) = Cx^{-D}$?

C is purely empirical for any given situation. BEWARE of such equations! Using coefficients to six significant figures gives the illusion of high precision when, in fact, the whole approach is ...
Gordon Stanger's user avatar
3 votes

Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

The argument and science behind this idea is well summarized on the Union of Concerned Scientist web page on global warming as it causes sea levels to rise. There is a link to a white paper which ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
  • 1,804
3 votes

How do climatologists define the "start" of a rainy season in a unimodal monsoonal climate?

I find the following method very straightforward and elegant. So maybe I can convince you to consider it. For the South American (SA) monsoon, Silva et al. (2007) and Carvalho et al. (2012) proposed ...
ouranos's user avatar
  • 652
3 votes

How much does COVID-19 affect weather forecasts?

Welcome to Earth Science SE! Given that the crisis is still ongoing, I doubt we know the full extent of the impact (forecasting the weather is hard enough, forecasting the impact of a pandemic is ...
BarocliniCplusplus's user avatar
3 votes
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What is this error regarding easting and northing of ground control points?

Easting and northing provide an alternative to latitude and longitude for specifying a point on the Earth ellipsoid. I suggest you read (for example) the wiki.gis.com pages on the Universal Transverse ...
David Hammen's user avatar
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2 votes
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Current temperature increase VS decrease during the little ice age

To be sure about why it appears to be centered around -0.2°C, you'd have to go to the original source of the graph. However, as an educated guess, I would imagine that they are showing the anomaly ...
gerrit's user avatar
  • 11.7k
2 votes
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What statistical methods are best for analyzing long-term rainfall data?

It depends on your data, if the rainfall data is in a grid with temporal and spatial dimension, you can use a NetCDF format to analyse the data via R, matlab, IDL or Python. NetCDF is Network Common ...
Felix Leung's user avatar
2 votes

How can I account for rainfall effects on air pollution?

Sounds like you want a dataset that is unadjusted for rainfall. I'm not sure what you have to gain from that, but there are ways to do it. One way to do this would be to find the inverse correlation ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
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2 votes

What are the technical solutions to measure $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I'll add to Freds answer and just provide some detail about the satellite measurements: The keyword you're looking for is "remote sensing of the atmosphere" or "remote sensing of XYZ", where XYZ is ...
AtmosphericPrisonEscape's user avatar
2 votes

What are the technical solutions to measure $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

There is an EU programme having exactly this aim. See this press release. Monitoring anthropogenic CO2 emissions needs the combination of in-situ measurements, satellite observations and modelling of ...
Basileios's user avatar
  • 407
2 votes
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What is the physical meaning of second moment of wind velocity?

The (statistical) variation is not the same as the gradient. The gradient is a measure how things change from here to a nearby point, or from now to a point in the near future. The variation, on the ...
Wolfgang Bangerth's user avatar
2 votes

Seismic amplitude distribution

I'm sure there are several possible reasons. I'm not a seismologist, this is an amateur answer only. Tidal forces Local acceleration has very small long-term drifts due to tidal forces from the ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,072
2 votes
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How to check the recurrence intervall of heavy rain events

In engineering it is common practice to build intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which basically map out the frequency of a given rainfall event based on its average intensity (mm/hr) and ...
Rob's user avatar
  • 751
2 votes

How much does COVID-19 affect weather forecasts?

Is there a project that tracks and publishes data regarding weather prediction errors on a regular basis that would help with analyzing the correlation between incoming data and prediction error? The ...
Basileios's user avatar
  • 407
2 votes

How much does COVID-19 affect weather forecasts?

The ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) has published an article about the topic on 24 March 2020: By 23 March there was a reduction of 65% in [European aircraft] reports ...
tmh's user avatar
  • 231
1 vote

What are good metrics to compare climates?

Zech–Aslan energy statistic stands out as the most recommended metric Baseline setup and dataset The data that are used represent some aspects of the historical (recent past) and future climates ...
pat harkin's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Where can I find detailed historical breakdowns of U.S. lightning fatalities on a year-by-year basis?

For a comprehensive literature review of sources of lightning fatalities data you can check the paper "Striking Back: An Assessment of Lightning related Fatality and Injury Risk in Canada", it covers ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
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