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6

My suggestion would be to do a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis on the wind data. The result of the analysis would be a set of modes of variability. You would be looking for modes that show areas that are large in magnitude but out of phase. As for the time scale, you need to check the eigenvectors and ...


6

The Rossby radius of deformation ($\lambda_{R}$) is a length scale over which adjustment will occur while a system approaches geostrophic equilibrium. In my class noted I have this defined as the distance at which buoyancy becomes as important as rotation. Some examples are given here but do not show their derivation. The distance that cold pools of ...


6

Key differences are in structure, location, environments they thrive in. To compare/contrast these storms I'll use a mid-latitude cyclone for the cold core cyclone and a hurricane for the warm core cyclone. Structure The hurricane is nearly symmetric and devoid of fronts. The mid-latitude cyclone is asymmetric (comma shaped with a long tail) and has ...


5

I am not not an expert in meteorology, but do study the chemistry involved in these types of events. My understanding is that the folds in the tropopause generally occur below the front of the jet stream, when the potential vorticity is strong enough to transport stratospheric air down through the tropopause/inversion. Please see the relevant quote from Q....


5

Not only are fronts associated with (extratropical) lows, but by in large, fronts are extensions of those lows, as shown by the following hand analysis (from the US Storm Prediction Center): There's a lot going on in the image, but try to focus on the many black lines, which show pressure: they're kinked around each front (and even the dryline). This ...


4

The polar vortex The AMS glossary defines the polar vortex as: A planetary-scale mid- to high-latitude circumpolar cyclonic circulation, extending from the middle troposphere to the stratosphere. The Northern Hemisphere vortex often features two centers—one near Baffin Island and the other over northeast Siberia—with analogous circumpolar asymmetry ...


2

Yes, in your example, the group should have been omitted. From the WMO Publication No. 306 - Manual On Codes - Volume I.1 - Part A, Section A, FM 12 SYNOP: 12.2.7 Group 8NhCLCMCH 12.2.7.1 This group shall be omitted in the following cases: (a) When there are no clouds (N = 0); (b) When the sky is obscured by fog and/or other meteorological ...


2

The (relatively) easy answer is that the mechanism that low pressure systems generally form are different than the mechanism that high pressure areas form. This begs the question "How do low pressure systems form?" I'll label the steps of the "Norwegian Cyclone Model" in brief layman-speak. First you need an area where temperatures change drastically with ...


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