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Its called endo- versus exo-. Simple reason; your surrounded by air molecules that like to dance. Pack them together, they dance faster. The closer they get, the warmer. Most houses have insulation. Which retains heat. The angle of sunlight will dictate how hot or cool your house will be. Think, sitting under a tree in the sun. You may be shaded, yet the ...

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During the day, the sunlight is kept out of your house by the roof (assuming you don't have a glass ceiling or windows on your roof). At night, the sun sets and the outside atmosphere is allowed to emit infrared radiation. If there are clouds out, they emit infrared radiation back down to the surface. The atmosphere, itself, also emits radiation back (...

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You may be forgetting that pressure also decreases with height (exponentially). Also, because $P=\rho R T$, $\frac{dP}{dT}=\rho R$ (that is, $c_p$ does not appear). But I digress in answering your question. Let's break down why potential temperature increases with height. Let's start with the equation: \theta=T\left(\frac{P_0}{P}\right)^{\frac{R_d}{c_p}}\...

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If we'd be living in a dry atmosphere your reasoning is indeed correct. Air would rise adiabatically and air would loose about 9.8 °C/km (dry adiabatic lapse rate). This means constant potential temperature. However, Earths atmosphere isn't dry. As soon as a rising, moist air parcel reaches saturation, it will rise with a moist adiabatic lapse rate (6-7 °C/...

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Regarding the outside temperatures check the humidity levels outside. The most likely reason it feels hotter at night is the humidity might be higher than during the day. Concerning the inside of the house being hotter at night than outside, that is mostly likely due to house accumulating heating during day and everything inside, furniture, walls, etc. is ...

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Your graphic shows temperature anomalies. That is, an average temperature is calculated over a large time frame, say 15 ° C. Then each value on the graphic is the CHANGE from that average. Anomalies are nice because "inaccurate" measurement instruments (proxies) can be used. An absolute reading can be off but the reading to reading change will be ...

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How it's possible to measure temperature 2000 years ago? Sans the technology used by Bill and Ted ("Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure"), it obviously is not possible to directly measure the temperature from yesterday, let alone 2000 years ago, or longer. What is used are "proxies", things that can be measured today that serve as stand-...

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ASOS data for all the airports in the world: https://mesonet.agron.iastate.edu/request/download.phtml This website also has a lot of other meteorological data for the United States.

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