21 votes
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Equinoxes and solstices: start of the season or mid-season?

There are three main ways to reckon seasons: Solar. The 3 months with the greatest insolation are designated summer, so the solstices and equinoxes fall in the middle of the season. In the Celtic ...
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16 votes

What is the difference between climate change and global warming?

Is "Climate Change" a derived theory within "Global Warming", or vice versa? Is "Climate Change" a reiteration of an earlier theory, "Global Warming"? Are these terms in fact synonymous? In ...
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15 votes
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Is there a difference between rock and stone?

I'm quoting from my old The Penguin Dictionary of Geology by D. G. A Whitten & J. R. V. Brooks, published in 1979. Rock (1) To the geologist any mass of mineral matter, whether consolidated or ...
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15 votes

Is there a difference between rock and stone?

Here, you can use this shoddily drawn table.
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12 votes
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Why is colored seismic inversion called 'colored'?

Colored inversion is designed to approximately match the average spectrum of inverted seismic data with the average spectrum observed impedance (Lancaster and Whitcombe, 2000). The earth’s ...
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  • 14.7k
11 votes

Is there a difference between rock and stone?

Most sources say that rocks are made of stones. (Or at least that stones are rock fragments.) From the Bing dictionary (definition of stone): hard nonmetallic material: the hard solid ...
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  • 2,802
11 votes
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Meaning of the C in the unit "mg C L-1"

Given the subject matter of the paper, I'd assume that it stands for carbon, and the whole expression refers to milligrams of carbon (or organic carbon) per litre of lake water.
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  • 5,380
11 votes

Why is q used for specific humidity?

The specific humidity q is a quotient - mass of water vapor in mass of moist air. The mass is expressed per volume, i.e. the density of water vapor $\rho_v$ and the density of dry air $\rho_d$ are ...
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  • 1,662
11 votes

Water levels: What does "mBf" mean?

It is "mean sea level above the Baltic Sea", in meters (source on page 109). That explains why it is used mainly in East-European countries. Martin Ekman - The Changing Level of the Baltic Sea ...
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  • 2,625
10 votes
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Esker vs. Kame vs. Drumlin - what's the difference?

Eskers are glaciofluvial deposits from sediment carrying subglacial tunnels. As the water emerges from a tunnel at the bed of an ice sheet or glacier it will slow down. Since the sediment movement ...
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8 votes

Equinoxes and solstices: start of the season or mid-season?

This all depends on the context in which the word is used. From an astronomical perspective, the solstices are midsummer and midwinter, and the equinoxes are the middle of autumn and the middle of ...
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8 votes
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Why is q used for specific humidity?

I haven't been able to find any particular references which hold themselves out as the origin of $q$ as the symbol of choice for specific humidity, but the origin of the term "specific humidity" ...
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  • 96
8 votes
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What are the guidelines for constructing variable names that follow CF conventions?

Possible this is not what you need, but here's an archive of the Guidelines for Construction of CF Standard Names, which is "Version 1, 3 December 2008" and was cached on July 28, 2013; guessing that ...
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  • 4,561
8 votes
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What do you call boulders of non sedimentary rock that were lithified into sandstone?

The technical term for a sedimentary rock that has a lithified fine-grained sediment with larger pieces of rocks suspended in it upon lithification is a conglomerate. The fine-grained interstitial ...
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  • 508
8 votes

Is the term "fertile ash" a misnomer?

'Fertile ash' is not a scientific term, but neither is it a misnomer. Unless the ash is deposited really hot - hot enough for the particles to weld together as 'ignimbrite', then the ash deposit has ...
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8 votes
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What is Oligo-Miocene radiation?

The ‘Oligo-Miocene’ part The Oligocene and the Miocene are epochs of geological time. The Oligocene lasted from ~33.9 million years ago to ~23 million years ago; the Miocene followed immediately ...
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  • 5,380
7 votes

Horizon letter for bedrock

It depends on which classification system you're using, which varies by country. According to the USDA Soil Taxonomy, R is used to designate bedrock. Other countries and classification systems may ...
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  • 315
7 votes
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Horizon letter for bedrock

According to Wikipedia and Nature.com, "R Horizon" is the official letter for bedrock. CAPTION: Example soil with designations that communicate the soil formation processes occurring in each horizon.
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  • 4,561
7 votes

What are the guidelines for constructing variable names that follow CF conventions?

As a result of @blunders answer, I located the document, and will summarize here: The general framework for constructing names is: [surface] [component] standard_name [at surface] [in medium] [due ...
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7 votes

What is the difference between eluvium and alluvium?

Also keep in mind that eluvium and eluvial have a different meaning in soil science. There, it means leaching of soil matter or chemical substances by water. (Usually, after some downward transport, ...
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7 votes

Correct phrase for a 'forgetful' natural system?

How would you call a system that displays such 'forgetfulness'? In one word, dissipative. In multiple words, a system whose autocorrelation function tends to zero as time tends to infinity. Note ...
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7 votes
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Confused about whether physical impact is 'erosion'

I'm assuming here that you're asking whether you can apply the term ‘erosion’ to the damage your stone suffered, rather than the damage your floor suffered. In this case, the applicability of the term ...
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  • 5,380
6 votes
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What is the name for the forested areas in mountains below the treeline?

Forests directly below the alpine tree line are high-elevation or Montane forests. See more about Montane ecology here. Image from http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/global-treeline-...
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  • 12.7k
6 votes

Why is colored seismic inversion called 'colored'?

The answer by @aretxabaleta is dealing specifically with seismic data (which was your question). I only want to add that the colour of noise is a general term to describe frequency spectra, that comes ...
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6 votes

Difference between "Geology" and "Physical(Natural) Geography"?

Physical Geography is a wide area of study - there is many sub-disciplines in this field, such as Biogeography, Climatology, Hydrology, Pedology, Geomorphology (and others as well). Often the scale ...
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6 votes
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How did the terms "acidic" and "basic" come to be associated with $SiO_2$ in igneous rocks?

The idea came from the theory that silicic acid was the chief form of silicon occurring in rocks. Early attempts to classify minerals, placed some mineral specimens in groups based acid-base ...
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