20

There are three main ways to reckon seasons: Solar. The 3 months with the greatest insolation are designated summer, so the solstices and equinoxes fall in the middle of the season. In the Celtic calendar, summer started on 1 May; in the traditional Chinese calendar it is 10 May. The cultural 'Midsummer' and 'Midwinter' festivals reflect this. Astronomical. ...


15

Is "Climate Change" a derived theory within "Global Warming", or vice versa? Is "Climate Change" a reiteration of an earlier theory, "Global Warming"? Are these terms in fact synonymous? In order, Vice versa. No. No. "Climate change" (and its kin, "climatic change") is a far older term than is "global warming." The terms "climate change" / "...


14

I'm quoting from my old The Penguin Dictionary of Geology by D. G. A Whitten & J. R. V. Brooks, published in 1979. Rock (1) To the geologist any mass of mineral matter, whether consolidated or not, which forms part of the Earth's crust ... (2) The civil engineer regards rock as something hard, consolidated, and/or load bearing, which, where ...


14

Here, you can use this shoddily drawn table.


11

It is "mean sea level above the Baltic Sea", in meters (source on page 109). That explains why it is used mainly in East-European countries. Martin Ekman - The Changing Level of the Baltic Sea during 300 Years - A clue to understanding the Earth shortly mentions some historical 'zero points' (page 111). As mentioned in the comments: mBf means méter ...


11

The specific humidity q is a quotient - mass of water vapor in mass of moist air. The mass is expressed per volume, i.e. the density of water vapor $\rho_v$ and the density of dry air $\rho_d$ are used for the definition of the quotient $q$ known as specific humidity: $$ q = \dfrac{\rho_v}{\rho_v+\rho_d} $$


11

Given the subject matter of the paper, I'd assume that it stands for carbon, and the whole expression refers to milligrams of carbon (or organic carbon) per litre of lake water.


10

Most sources say that rocks are made of stones. (Or at least that stones are rock fragments.) From the Bing dictionary (definition of stone): hard nonmetallic material: the hard solid nonmetallic substance that rocks are made of. rock fragment: a small piece of rock of any shape shaped rock fragment: a piece of rock that has been shaped for ...


10

Email response from Alex Jacques (Programming Support - MesoWest): The exact interpretation can vary between data providers to MesoWest, but in general it refers to the amount of snow that has fallen on an "interval board". In several cases, stations have boards where snowfall is recorded, and then the board is wiped clean at set intervals (...


9

On the summer solstice, we receive more heat from the Sun than on any other day. The next day, we receive less heat from the Sun, but we still receive more heat than we lose. Thus, the temperature increases. At some point (roughly August 2nd, "Midsummer's Day"), we receive as much heat as we lose. That represents the maximum temperature. After that, we lose ...


8

I haven't been able to find any particular references which hold themselves out as the origin of $q$ as the symbol of choice for specific humidity, but the origin of the term "specific humidity" itself appears to have been in an 1884 article by Dr. W. von Bezold, translated into English and published in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (Vol. 51) in ...


8

Possible this is not what you need, but here's an archive of the Guidelines for Construction of CF Standard Names, which is "Version 1, 3 December 2008" and was cached on July 28, 2013; guessing that the page has not been updated since December 2008. Also, the source code repository for CF Conventions website you linked to (cf-convention.github.io) is ...


8

The technical term for a sedimentary rock that has a lithified fine-grained sediment with larger pieces of rocks suspended in it upon lithification is a conglomerate. The fine-grained interstitial part is called the matrix, and the large pieces suspended in it are called clasts. Clasts can range from gravel- to boulder-size. These are technical terms used by ...


8

'Fertile ash' is not a scientific term, but neither is it a misnomer. Unless the ash is deposited really hot - hot enough for the particles to weld together as 'ignimbrite', then the ash deposit has high porosity and permeability. As soon as water infiltrates, the anhydrous minerals start weathering to clay - generally smectite, or mixed layer clays. This ...


8

The ‘Oligo-Miocene’ part The Oligocene and the Miocene are epochs of geological time. The Oligocene lasted from ~33.9 million years ago to ~23 million years ago; the Miocene followed immediately after the Oligocene, and lasted until ~5 million years ago. Oligo-Miocene refers to events that happened around the boundary between the two epochs at ~23 million ...


7

Also keep in mind that eluvium and eluvial have a different meaning in soil science. There, it means leaching of soil matter or chemical substances by water. (Usually, after some downward transport, the substances precipitate in an iluvial horizon.)


7

This all depends on the context in which the word is used. From an astronomical perspective, the solstices are midsummer and midwinter, and the equinoxes are the middle of autumn and the middle of spring. However, the seasons, as perceived in terms of weather, lag somewhat behind the astronomical seasons (presumably this is due to the thermal mass of the ...


7

It depends on which classification system you're using, which varies by country. According to the USDA Soil Taxonomy, R is used to designate bedrock. Other countries and classification systems may (or may not) use different letters. Check out the Compendium of On-Line Soil Survey Information for other classification systems. To answer your second ...


7

According to Wikipedia and Nature.com, "R Horizon" is the official letter for bedrock. CAPTION: Example soil with designations that communicate the soil formation processes occurring in each horizon.


7

As a result of @blunders answer, I located the document, and will summarize here: The general framework for constructing names is: [surface] [component] standard_name [at surface] [in medium] [due to process] [assuming condition] where surface is a horizontal plane, e.g. tropopause, or sea_level. Single word surface names go at the beginning; ...


7

Eskers are glaciofluvial deposits from sediment carrying subglacial tunnels. As the water emerges from a tunnel at the bed of an ice sheet or glacier it will slow down. Since the sediment movement depends on water velocity the sediment will be deposited. The results is a highly localised deposition. When glaciers retreat the point of emergence for the water ...


7

How would you call a system that displays such 'forgetfulness'? In one word, dissipative. In multiple words, a system whose autocorrelation function tends to zero as time tends to infinity. Note that the autocorrelation function may not exist; this concept implicitly assumes a linear (or approximately linear) system. Consider a river. Adding a small ...


7

I'm assuming here that you're asking whether you can apply the term ‘erosion’ to the damage your stone suffered, rather than the damage your floor suffered. In this case, the applicability of the term hinges not so much on who's doing it as on what it's happening to. In geology, the term ‘erosion’ is usually applied to land surfaces rather than individual, ...


6

Forests directly below the alpine tree line are high-elevation or Montane forests. See more about Montane ecology here. Image from http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/global-treeline-position-15897370


6

The idea came from the theory that silicic acid was the chief form of silicon occurring in rocks. Early attempts to classify minerals, placed some mineral specimens in groups based acid-base reactions and the hypothetical acid that mineral was derived. Sulfates, phosphates, nitrates , and tungstates etc. This thinking was the result of 19th century ...


6

The River Indus in Jammu and Kashmir of India and Gilgit-Baltistan under Pakistan control is usually taken as the dividing line between Himalayas and Karakoram. The River Gilgit, a tributary of the Indus flowing from the North-west has its confluence with the Indus from the North-East near the town of Juglot or Jaglot about 45 km south east of Gilgit on ...


6

From physics standpoint I would say that such system is stable. For example think of a ball on a surface. If the ball is initially on the top of a hill a push would move the ball into the slope that would only accelerate it further from the original location/state (unstable system). If the ball is instead initially in a pit or local minimum, any push would ...


6

As far as I am aware there is no single term to describe the sudden change in the gradient of a slope. Personally I would describe it simply as a sudden increase in slope. However there are many words to describe the landforms that occur when gradient sharply increase. Terms such as cliff, escarpment and mountainside all describe the steep landform as whole....


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible