16 votes

What is the difference between climate change and global warming?

Is "Climate Change" a derived theory within "Global Warming", or vice versa? Is "Climate Change" a reiteration of an earlier theory, "Global Warming"? Are these terms in fact synonymous? In ...
David Hammen's user avatar
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10 votes
Accepted

Esker vs. Kame vs. Drumlin - what's the difference?

Eskers are glaciofluvial deposits from sediment carrying subglacial tunnels. As the water emerges from a tunnel at the bed of an ice sheet or glacier it will slow down. Since the sediment movement ...
Peter Jansson's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

What do you call boulders of non sedimentary rock that were lithified into sandstone?

The technical term for a sedimentary rock that has a lithified fine-grained sediment with larger pieces of rocks suspended in it upon lithification is a conglomerate. The fine-grained interstitial ...
Ben MS's user avatar
  • 548
8 votes

Is the term "fertile ash" a misnomer?

'Fertile ash' is not a scientific term, but neither is it a misnomer. Unless the ash is deposited really hot - hot enough for the particles to weld together as 'ignimbrite', then the ash deposit has ...
Gordon Stanger's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

What is Oligo-Miocene radiation?

The ‘Oligo-Miocene’ part The Oligocene and the Miocene are epochs of geological time. The Oligocene lasted from ~33.9 million years ago to ~23 million years ago; the Miocene followed immediately ...
Pont's user avatar
  • 5,429
8 votes
Accepted

"Archaeozoic" vs "Archean"

The Archaen was named by American geologist James Dwight Dana in 1872, to refer to the entire span of time before the Cambrian Period. A synonym was "Azoic" as this period was considered ...
Spencer's user avatar
  • 3,548
7 votes

Correct phrase for a 'forgetful' natural system?

How would you call a system that displays such 'forgetfulness'? In one word, dissipative. In multiple words, a system whose autocorrelation function tends to zero as time tends to infinity. Note ...
David Hammen's user avatar
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7 votes
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Confused about whether physical impact is 'erosion'

I'm assuming here that you're asking whether you can apply the term ‘erosion’ to the damage your stone suffered, rather than the damage your floor suffered. In this case, the applicability of the term ...
Pont's user avatar
  • 5,429
6 votes

Difference between "Geology" and "Physical(Natural) Geography"?

Physical Geography is a wide area of study - there is many sub-disciplines in this field, such as Biogeography, Climatology, Hydrology, Pedology, Geomorphology (and others as well). Often the scale ...
marsisalie's user avatar
  • 2,673
6 votes
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How did the terms "acidic" and "basic" come to be associated with $SiO_2$ in igneous rocks?

The idea came from the theory that silicic acid was the chief form of silicon occurring in rocks. Early attempts to classify minerals, placed some mineral specimens in groups based acid-base ...
Earth Science Expatriate's user avatar
6 votes

What separates the Karakoram Range, the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayan Range?

The River Indus in Jammu and Kashmir of India and Gilgit-Baltistan under Pakistan control is usually taken as the dividing line between Himalayas and Karakoram. The River Gilgit, a tributary of the ...
Kushal Pal Singh Shante's user avatar
6 votes

Correct phrase for a 'forgetful' natural system?

From physics standpoint I would say that such system is stable. For example think of a ball on a surface. If the ball is initially on the top of a hill a push would move the ball into the slope that ...
Communisty's user avatar
  • 1,064
6 votes
Accepted

What is this upside-down transparent funnel-shaped item on a weather monitoring station?

The upside down funnel-shaped attachment is used to prevent rain-water getting inside the inlet of instruments which analyse ambient air. Usually, these instruments are air pollution monitoring ...
Harish's user avatar
  • 797
6 votes
Accepted

What is it called for the part of a hill where it discontinuously gets steeper?

As far as I am aware there is no single term to describe the sudden change in the gradient of a slope. Personally I would describe it simply as a sudden increase in slope. However there are many words ...
Matt_Illing's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

If rocks are stones, what type of rock are gallstones?

The nature of this question is more about biological chemistry than it is about earth science. This is because gall stones have nothing to do with geology, but chemical processes in the body. ...
Fred's user avatar
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5 votes

Is the term "fertile ash" a misnomer?

There are actually two slightly different ways to interpret the phrase "fertile ash". Both are valid, and you'd need to look at the context of the phrase to determine exactly which is meant (this is ...
Pont's user avatar
  • 5,429
5 votes
Accepted

Is the atmosphere a part of Earth?

It's all in how one chooses to define it M.Connor. Often in physical science courses, we define the Earth system as the lithosphere (rocks), atmosphere (air), biosphere (life), and hydrosphere (water)...
JeopardyTempest's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Which particles are classified as PM2.5? How exactly is this defined?

I think answering your questions in reverse will make more sense. The "size" of PM is typically the aerodynamic/inertial impaction size, as you guessed. My standard reference for this is this paper. ...
Jareth Holt's user avatar
  • 1,381
4 votes
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What is the difference between climate change and global warming?

Note: As the OP, it's not quite fair to say this is "my" answer, but a synthesis of the many comments provided. -- Thank you. Question Restatement: Given the many representations of "Global ...
elika kohen's user avatar
4 votes

Difference between "Geology" and "Physical(Natural) Geography"?

There is overlap of course, but >90% of most geology courses deal with topics which don't come into physical geography, such as geochemistry, geophysics, petrology and mineralogy, hydrogeology, ...
Gordon Stanger's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Why are geologists and geographers not specialists in one of the branches of Earth science?

Geographers may or may not be Earth Scientists. It is a broad field and includes human geography, cultural geography, economic geography, transportation geography, and other sub-disciplines that are ...
haresfur's user avatar
  • 4,439
4 votes

What is meant by controlling and reacting factor?

A controlling factor is a factor that acts as a cause for others. A reactive factor is rather the consequence: that which reacts to the controlling factor. For example, the Sun is certainly a ...
gerrit's user avatar
  • 11.7k
4 votes

What is a breadboard (retrieval) algorithm in the context of geophysical satellite retrievals/remote sensing?

When determining the retrieval algorithm for a spectrometer that will be built, it is first done on highly mathematical software platforms. The software allows to the best curve approximation fitting ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
  • 13.5k
4 votes

What is a "show" in petroleum geology?

A show is a visual indication of hydrocarbons, in the jargon of petroleum exploration, it is typically used to describe a drilling. It could be e.g. a Gas show in the drilling fluid. Show evaluation ...
user2821's user avatar
  • 5,946
4 votes

Correct phrase for a 'forgetful' natural system?

Terms that come to mind are self or continuously or automatically: restoring replenishing renewing regenerating repairing healing
Fred's user avatar
  • 24.7k
4 votes
Accepted

What is the meaning of the subscript in the abbreviations of some minerals?

Olivine is a solid solution between forsterite and fayalite, so it is generally expressed as molar percentages of these end-members, for instance Fo80Fa20. Often only one end-member is mentioned, as ...
Jean-Marie Prival's user avatar
4 votes

Why is mass fraction always abbreviated wt% and not ma%?

This is because of historical inertia. Yes, you are correct that "mass" is technically more correct than "weight". However, because these are percentages, it does not matter. There are no units. A ...
Gimelist's user avatar
  • 23.1k
4 votes
Accepted

Hydro-meteorological hazards vs climate extremes

The UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction gives a good definition of a "hydrometeorological hazard": Natural processes or phenomena of atmospheric, hydrological or oceanographic nature, ...
M Juckes's user avatar
  • 772
4 votes
Accepted

Why are there so many "horseshoe lakes", and are they really mostly in the US?

Let's get rid of a red herring from the Wikipedia page linked to in the question! Horseshoe Lake, Arizona - is a reservoir created by the Horseshoe dam. Nothing to do with actual horseshoe lakes. The ...
Fred's user avatar
  • 24.7k
4 votes
Accepted

Gases descending from atmospheres

I think, as David Hanmen alluded to, you have misread the article. In laymen's terms (though not fully technically accurate), it describes that the height of the ozone layer should increase as the ...
BarocliniCplusplus's user avatar

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