4

Let's get rid of a red herring from the Wikipedia page linked to in the question! Horseshoe Lake, Arizona - is a reservoir created by the Horseshoe dam. Nothing to do with actual horseshoe lakes. The other's lakes listed might be genuine horseshoe lakes, but there are no aerial photographs of them. Generally, horseshoe lakes are oxbow lakes which is a U-...


2

See this answer. Actually already snows on Mars. The snow, made of carbon dioxide, has been observed and studied by orbiting spacecraft. Aside from the different chemical composition from the stuff we shovel on Earth, Martian $\text{CO}_2$ snow also is very finely divided, microscopic in size in fact; likely this is related to the low density of available ...


2

Drainage basin or drainage system Drainage basin are defined by drainage pattern, which is controlled by the underlying geology and landform. more on what creates the pattern. https://www.wvca.us/envirothon/pdf/Drainage%20Patterns.pdf


1

Think about this backwards: instead of thinking that civilizations happen to live in specific watersheds, consider that it is the mountains that force them to live in these separate watersheds. Rivers, like many early cultures, are "orographically constrained", topography will dictate how separate and distinct they become over time from one another....


1

Topology is a study of deformable shapes and connectivity. Topography is a study of more or less non-deformable shapes. A coffee cup that has an intact handle and a donut with a hole in the middle are equivalent shapes topologically, but obviously are not equivalent shapes topographically.


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible